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ITS Origin, 



B^WHenri Delabordh 

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IW THIS a?LLEOE:>r55N.£« 

JUNE ^^^ii^^^^l93 O 


(Mu Vv/oDci r A. Co. 



PrincipaJ oj the National Art Irainhn^ School, South Kensington 


Its Origin, Processes, and History. 





With an Additional Chapter on English Enoravi?tg, 





[all rights reserved.] 




The author of " La Gravure/' of which work the 
present volume is a translation, has devoted so little 
attention to English Engraving, that it has been 
thought advisable to supplement his somewhat in- 
adequate remarks by a special chapter dealing with 
this subject. 

In accordance with this view, Mr. William Walker 
has contributed an account of the rise and progress 
of the British School of Engraving, which, together 
with his Chronological Table of the better-known 
English Engravers, will, we feel sure, add much to the 
value of the Work in the eyes of English readers. 



I. The Processes of Early Engraving. The Begin- 
nings OF Engraving in Relief. Xylography 
AND Printing with Movable Type i 

II. Playing Cards. The Dot Manner 30 

III. First Attempts at Intaglio Engraving. The 

Nielli of the Florentine Goldsmiths. Prints 
BY the Italian and German Painter-Engravers 
OF the Fifteenth Century 49 

IV. Line Engraving and Wood Engraving in Germany 

AND Italy in the Sixteenth Century 86 

V. Line Engraving and Etching in the Low 
Countries, to the Second Half of the Seven- 
teenth Century 118 

VI. The Beginning of Line Engraving and Etching 
IN France and England. First Attempts at 
Mezzotint. A Glance at Engraving in Europe 
before 1660 150 



VII. French Engravers in the Rfign of Louis XIV 178 

VIII. Engraving in France and in other European 
Countries in the Eightef.nth Century. New 
Processes: Stipple, Crayon, Colour, and Aqua- 
tint .. 211 

IX. Engraving in the Nineteenth Century 248 

A Chapter on English Engraving .. .. 278 

Chronological Table of English Engravers 331 

Index 343 




The nations of antiquity understood and practised en- 
graving, that is to say, the art of representing things 
by incised outlines on metal, stone, or any other 
rigid substance. Setting aside even those relics of 
antiquity in bone or flint which still retain traces of 
figures drawn with a sharp-pointed tcol, there may 
yet be found in the Bible and in Homer accounts of 
several works executed by the aid of similar methods ; 
and the characters outlined on the precious stones 
adorning the breastplate of the high-priest Aaron, 
or the scenes represented on the armour of Achilles, 
might be quoted amongst the most ancient examples 
of the art of engraving. The Egyptians, Greeks, 
and Etruscans have left us specimens of goldsmith's 
work and fragments of all kinds, \Nhich, at any rate, 
attest the practice of engraving in their countries. 
Finally, every one is aware that metal seals and dies 
of engraved stone were in common use amongst 
the Romans. 

Engraving, therefore, in the strict sense of the 


word, is no invention due to modern civilisation. 
But many centuries elapsed before man acquired 
the art of multiplying printed copies from a single 
original, to which art the name of engraving has been 
extended, so that nowadays the word signifies the 
operation of producing a print. 

Of engraving thus understood there are two im- 
portant processes or methods. By the one, strokes 
are drawn on a flat surface, and afterwards laboriously 
converted by the engraver into ridges, which, v/hen 
coated with ink, are printed on the paper in virtue of 
their projection. By the other, outlines, shadows, and 
half-tints are represented by incisions intended to con-' 
tain the colouring matter ; while those parts meant to 
come out white on paper are left untouched. Wood- 
cutting, or engraving in relief, is an example of the 
first method ; while to the second belongs metal-work 
or copperplate engraving, which we now call engraving 
with the burin, or line engraving. 

In order to engrave in relief, a block, not less 
than an inch thick, of hard, smooth wood, such as box 
or pear, is used. On this block every detail of the 
design to be engraved is drawn with pen or pencil. 
Then such places as are meant to come out white 
in the print are cut away with a sharp tool. Thus, 
only those places that have been covered beforehand 
by the pencil or the pen remain at the level of the 
surface of the block ; they only will be inked by the 
action of the roller; and when the block is subjected 
to the action of the press, they only will transfer the 
printing ink to the proof. 


This method, earh'er than that of the incised line, 
led to engraving " in camaieu," which was skilfully 
practised in Italy and Germany during the sixteenth 
century. As in camaieu engraving those lines which 
define the contours are left as ridges by the cutting 
away of the surrounding surface, we may say that in 
this method (which the Italians call "chiaroscuro") the 
usual processes of engraving in relief are employed. 
But it is a further object of camaieu to produce 
on the paper flat tints of various depths : that is 
to say, a scale of tones somewhat similar to the 
effect of drawings washed in with Indian ink or 
sepia, and touched up with white. Now such a 
chromatic progression can only be arrived at by the 
co-operation of distinct processes. Therefore, in- 
stead of printing from a single surface, separate 
blocks are employed for the outlines, shadows, and 
lights, and a proof is taken by the successive ap- 
plication of the paper to all these blocks, which 
are made to correspond exactly by means of guiding 

A third style of engraving in relief, the "early 
dot manner," was practised for some time during 
the period of the Incunabuli, when the art was, as 
the root of this Latin word shows, still " in its cradle." 
By this method the work was no longer carried out 
on wood, but on metal ; and the engraver, instead 
of completely hollowing out those parts destined to 
print light, merely pitted them with minute holes, 
leaving their bulk in relief. He was content that 
these masses should appear upon the paper black, 
B 2 


relieved only by the sprinkling of white dots resulting 
from the hollows. 

We just mention by way of note the process 
which produced those rare specimens called 'Vw- 
preintes en pater All specimens of this work are 
anterior in date to the sixteenth century, and belong 
less strictly to art than to industry, as the process 
only consisted in producing on paper embossed 
designs strongly suggesting the appearance of orna- 
ments in embroidery or tapestry. To produce these 
inevitably coarse figures a sort of half-liquid, blackish 
"gum or paste was introduced into the hollow portions, 
of the block before printing. On the block thus 
prepared was placed a sheet of paper, previously 
stained orange, red, or light yellow, and the paste 
contained in the hollow places, when lodged on the 
paper, became a kind of drawing in relief, something 
like an impasto of dark colour. This was sometimes 
powdered with a fluffy or metallic dust before the 
paste had time to harden. 

Though simple enough as regards the mere pro- 
cess, in practice line engraving demands a peculiar 
dexterity. When the outlines of the drawing that 
is to be copied have been traced and transferred 
to a plate usually made of copper,* the metal is 

* At the present day line engravers sometimes vork on steel 
plates, as they are capable of supplying without damage a much 
greater number of proofs than can be printed from copper plates. 
It more frequently happens that a copper plate is coated with steel 
before being submitted to the action of the press, in order to preserve 
it, and to increase the number of copies without taking off the edge of 


attacked with a sharp tool, called the dry-point. 
Then the trenches thus marked out are deepened, or 
fresh ones are made with the graver, which, owing 
to its shape, produces an angular incision. The 
appearance of every object represented in the original 
must be reproduced solely by these incised lines : at 
different distances apart, or tending in various direc- 
tions : or by dots and cross-hatchings. 

Line engraving possesses no other resources. 
Moreover, in addition to the difficulties resulting 
from the use of a refractory tool, we must mention 
the unavoidable slowness of the work, and the fre- 
quent impossibility of correcting faults without having 
recourse to such drastic remedies as obtaining a 
fresh surface by re-levelling the plate where the mis- 
takes have been made. 

Etching by means of aquafortis, originally used 
by armourers in their damascene work, is said to 
have been first applied to the execution of plates 
in Germany towards the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Since then it has attracted a great many 
draughtsmen and painters, as it requires only a 
short apprenticeship, and is the quickest kind of 
engraving. Line engravers have not only frequently 
used etching in beginning their plates, but have 
often employed it, not merely to sketch in their 
subject, but actually in conjunction with the burin. 

the workmanship. That is to say, that by means of "elcctrotyping " a 
thin coat of metal is superimposed, which, since it consiclera])ly increases 
the power of endurance, increases the productiveness of the plate an 
the numl)er of proofs that can be taken. 


Many important works owe their existence to the 
mixture of the two processes, among others the fine 
portraits of Jean Morin, and the admirable '* Batailles 
d' Alexandre," engraved by Gerard Audran, after 
Lebrun. But at present we are only occupied with 
etching as practised separately and within the limits 
of its own resources. 

The artist who makes use of this method has to 
scoop no laborious furrows. He draws with the 
needle, on a copper plate covered with a coating of 
varnish, suggestions of form as free as the strokes 
of pen or pencil. At first these strokes only affect 
the surface of the copper where the needle has 
freed the plate from varnish. But they become of 
the necessary depth as soon as a certain quantity 
of corrosive fluid has been poured on to the plate, 
which is surrounded by a sort of wax rampart. 
For a length of time proportioned to the effect in- 
tended, the acid is allowed to bite the exposed parts 
of the metal, and when the plate is cleaned proofs 
can be struck off from it. 

With the exception of such few modifications as 
characterise prints in the scraped or scratched man- 
ner, called "sgraffio," and in the stippled manner, 
the methods of engraving just mentioned are all 
that have been used in Europe from the end of the 
Middle Ages up to about the second half of the 
seventeenth century. We need not, therefore, at pre- 
sent mention more recent processes, such as mezzo- 
tint, aquatint, &c., each of which we shall touch upon 
at its proper place in the history of the art. Before 


proceeding with this history, let us try to recollect 
the facts with which we have prefaced it ; and, as 
chronological order proscribes, to differentiate and 
classify the first productions of relief engraving. 

However formal their differences of opinion on 
matters of detail, technical writers hold as certain 
one general fact. They all agree in recognising that 
the methods of relief engraving were practised with 
a view to printing earlier than the method of in- 
taglio. What interval, however, separates the two 
discoveries? At what epoch are we to place the 
invention of wood engraving ? or if the process, as 
has been often alleged, is of. Asiatic origin, when was 
it brought into Europe ? To pretend to give a deci- 
sive answer to these questions would be, at least, im- 
prudent. Conjectures of every sort, and even the 
most dogmatic assertions, are not wanting. But the 
learned have in vain evoked testimony, interpreted 
passages, and drawn conclusions. They have gone 
back to first causes, and questioned the most remote 
antiquity ; they have sometimes strangely forced the 
meaning of traditions, and have too often confounded 
simple material accidents with the evidences of con- 
scious art properly so called. Yet the problem is as 
far from solution as ever, and, indeed, the number 
and diversity of opinions have up till now done little 
but render conviction more difficult and doubt more 

Our authorities, for instance, are not justified in 
connecting the succession of modern engravers with 
those men who, " even before the Deluge, engraved 


on trees the history of their times, their sciences, 
and their religion."^ Nor is the mention by Pkitarch 
of a certain almost typographical trick of Agesilaus, 
King of Sparta, excuse enough for those who have 
counted him among the precursors of Gutenberg. 
It is by no means impossible that Agesilaus, in a 
sacrifice to the gods on the eve of a decisive battle 
may have been clever enough to deceive his soldiers, 
by imprinting on the liver of the victim the word 
" Victory," already written in reverse on the palm of 
his hand. But in truth such trickery only distantly 
concerns art ; and if we are to consider the Greek 
hero as the inventor of printing, we must also allow 
that it has taken us as long as eighteen centuries to 
profit by his discovery. 

We shall therefore consider ourselves entitled to 
abandon all speculations on the first cause of this 
discovery in favour of an exclusive attention to such 
facts as mark an advance from the dim foreshadowing 
of its future capabilities to the intelligent and per- 
severing practice of the perfected processes of the art. 
We shall be content to inquire towards what epoch 
this new method, the heir of popular favour, sup- 
plemented the old resources of the graphic arts by 
the multiplication of engravings in the printing press. 
And we may therefore spare ourselves the trouble 
of going back to doubtful or remote information, to 
archaeological speculations, more or less excused by 
certain passages in Cicero, Quintilian, and Petronius, 

* Papillon, "Traite de la Gravure en Bois, ' 1766, vol. i., ch. i. 


or by a frequently quoted phrase of Pliny on the 
books, ornamented with figures, that belonged to 
Marcus Varro."^ 

Moreover in examining the historical question from 
a comparatively modern epoch only, we are not cer- 
tain to find for ourselves, still less to provide for 
others, perfectly satisfactory answers. Reduced even 
to these terms, such a question is complicated enough 
to excuse controversy, and vast enough to make room 
for a legendary as well as a critical view of the case. 
Xylography, or block printing, which may be called 
the art of stamping on paper designs and immovable 
letters cut out on wood, preceded without doubt the 
invention of printing in movable metal characters. 
Some specimens authentically dated, such as the " St. 
Christopher" of 1423, and certain prints published in 
the course of the following years, prove with unde- 
niable authority the priority of block printing. It 
remains to be seen if these specimens are absolutely 
the first engraved in Europe ; whether they illustrate 
the beginning of the art, or only a step in its pro- 
gress ; whether, in one word, they are types without 
precedent, or only chance survivals of other and more 
ancient styles of wood engraving. 

Papillon, in support of the opinion that the 
earliest attempts took place at Ravenna before the 
end of the thirteenth century, brings into court a 
somewhat doubtful story. Two children of sixteen, 
the Cavalierc Alberico Cunio and his twin sister 

♦ Plinv, "Hist. Nat.." xxxv., c. 2. 


Isabella, took it into their heads in 1284 to carve on 
wood " with a little knife," and to print by some pro- 
cess seemingly as simple a series of compositions on 
" the chivalrous deeds of Alexander the Great." The 
relations and friends of the two young engravers, Pope 
Honorius IV. amongst others, each received a copy 
of their work. After this no more was heard of the 
discovery till the day when Papillon miraculously 
came across evidences of it in the library of " a Swiss 
officer in retirement at Bagneux." Papillon unfor- 
tunately was satisfied with merely recording his dis- 
covery. It never occurred to him to ensure more 
conclusive publicity, nor even to inquire into the 
ultimate fate of the prints he only had seen. The 
collection of "The Chivalrous Deeds of Alexander 
the Great" again vanished, and this time not to 
reappear. It is more prudent, in default of any 
means of verification, to withhold our belief in the 
precocious ability of the Ravenna twins, their xylo- 
graphic attempts, and the assertions of their admirers, 
although competent judges, such as the Abbe Zani,"^ 
and after him Emeric David, have not hesitated to 
admit the authenticity of the whole story. 

The learned Zani had, in truth, his own reasons 
for taking Papillon at his word. Had the story 
tended to establish the pre-existence of engraving in 
Germany, he would probably have investigated the 
matter more closely, and with a less ready faith. But 
the glory of Italy was directly at issue, and Zani, 

* ** Material! per servire alia Storia dell' Incisione," Sec, p. 83 and 

Fig. I.— the st. Christopher of 1423. 


honest though he was, did not feel incHned to receive 
with coldness, still less to reject, testimony which, for 
lack of better, might console his national self-respect, 
and somewhat help to avenge what the Italians 
called ''German vanity." Pride would have been a 
better word, for the pretensions of Germany with 
regard to wood engraving are based on more serious 
titles and far more explicit documents than the one 
discovered by Papillon, and recklessly passed on by 
Zani. Heinecken and the other German writers on 
the subject doubtless criticise in a slightly disdainful 
manner, and with some excess of patriotic feeling. 
For all that, they defend their opinions by documents, 
and not by mere traditions ; and if all their examples 
are not quite evidently German, those which are not 
should in justice be attributed to Flanders, or to 
Holland, and by no means to Italy. 

In this struggle of rival national claims the 
schools of the Low Countries are entitled to their 
share of glory. It is quite possible that their 
claims, so generally ignored towards the end of the 
last century, should in the present day be accounted 
the most valid of all ; and that, in this obscure ques- 
tion of priority, the presumption may be in favour 
of the country which supplied an art closely con- 
nected with engraving with its first elements and 
its first examples. It would be unbecoming in every 
way to pretend to enter here on a detailed history 
of the origin of printing. The number of exhaustive 
works on the subject, the explanations of M. Leon 
de Laborde, M. Auguste Bernard, and more recently 


of M. Paeile, would render it a mere lesson in repeti- 
tion or a too easy parade of borrowed learning. Any- 
how, the discovery of printing with type is so inti- 
mately connected with the printing of engravings, and 
the practical methods in both are so much alike, that 
it is necessary to mention a few facts^ and to com- 
pare a few dates. We shall therefore, under correc- 
tion, reduce to the limits of a sketch the complete 
picture drawn by other hands. 

If printing be strictly understood to mean typo- 
graphy, or the art of transferring written matter to 
paper by means of movable and raised metal types, 
there can be no doubt that its discovery must date 
from the day on which there was invented at Mayence 
the process of casting characters in a mould previously 
stamped in the bottom by a steel die bearing the 
type to be reproduced. 

Gutenberg, with whom the idea of this decisive 
improvement originated, is in this sense the earliest 
printer. His "Letters of Indulgence" of 1454 and 
his " Bible " are the oldest examples of the art with 
which he is for ever associated. In a general sense, 
however, and in a wider meaning of the word, it may 
be said that printing was known before Gutenberg's 
time, or at least before he published his typogra- 
phical masterpieces. People previously knew both 
how to print broadsides from characters cut on a 
single block, and how to vary the arrangement of 
the text by using, in place of an immovable row 
of letters, characters existing as separate types, and 
capable of various combinations. On this point 


we must trust to the testimony of one of Gutenberg's 
workmen, Ulrich Zell, the first printer established 
in Cologne. Far from attributing to his master 
the absolute invention of movable type, he merely 
contrasts with the process known and practised in the 
Low Countries before the second half of the fifteenth 
century " the far more delicate process " of cast type 
"that was discovered later." And Ulrich Zell adds, 
"the first step towards this invention was taken in 
1440 in the printing of the copies of Donatus,"^ which 
were printed before this time in Holland {ab illis atqiic 
ex iliis)!' 

Now if these copies of Donatus were not printed by 
means of movable type, why should they be mentioned 
rather than the many other works equally fitted to 
give a hint to Gutenberg } Why, in going back to the 
origin of the discovery, should his pupil say nothing 
of those illustrated legends which were xylographi- 
cally cut and sold in all the Rhenish towns, and 
which the future inventor of printing must have seen 
hundreds of times ? For the attention of Gutenberg 
to have been thus concentrated on a single object, 
there must have been some peculiar merit and some 
stamp of real progress in the mode of execution to 
distinguish the copies of Donatus printed at Haarlem 
from other contemporary work. Laurence Coster — 
the name attributed to the inventor of the process 
which Gutenberg improved — must have already made 

* That is the ''Treatises on Latin Syntax" by .Elius Donatus, a 
granunarian of the fourth century. In the Middle Ages these treatises 
were much used in schools. 


use of a method more closely allied than any other to 
the improvements about to follow, and destined to put 
a term to mere experiments. 

To suppose the contrary is to misunderstand the 
words of Ulrich Zell and the influence which he 
attributes to the Dutch edition of Donatus, from 
which Gutenberg derived **the first idea of his in- 
vention." It is still more difficult to understand 
how, if the Donatuses are block-printed, reversed 
letters are sometimes found in the fragmentary 
specimens which survive. There is nothing the least 
extraordinary in such a mistake when it can be 
explained by the carelessness of a compositor of 
movable type, but such a mistake would really be 
incredible on the part of a xylographic workman. 
What possible caprice could have tempted him to 
engrave occasional letters upside down ? One could 
only suppose he erred, not from inadvertence, but 
with voluntary infidelity and in calculated defiance 
of common sense. 

The discovery which has immortalised the name 
of Gutenberg should be recognised and admired 
as the conclusion and crown of a series of earlier 
attempts in printed type. Taking into account the 
inadequacy of the movable type, whether of wood 
or of any other substance, first employed by the 
Dutch, and the perfection of the earh'est specimens 
of German printing, it can and should be admitted 
that, before the publication of the "Letters of In- 
dulgence," the '* Bible," and other productions from 
the workshop of Gutenberg and his fellow-labourers, 


attempts at genuine typography had been already 
pursued, and to a certain extent rewarded with 

From the very confession of Uh'ich Zell, a con- 
fession repeated by the anonymous author of the 
" Chronicle of Cologne " printed in 1499,"^ the first rude 
essay in the art {prefignratio) was seen in the town ot 
Haarlem. We may, in short, conclude that the idea 
of combining designs cut on wood with a separate 
letterpress in movable types, belongs in all proba- 
bility to Holland. 

One of the oldest collections of engravings with 
subject matter printed by this process is the "Speculum 
Humana^ Salvationis," mentioned by Adrian Junius 
in his " Batavia " — written, it would seem, between 
the years 1560 and 1570, but not published till 
1588, many years after his death. Therein it is 
expressly stated that the " Speculum " was Sprinted 
before 1442 by Lourens Janszoon Coster. It is true 
that Junius is speaking of events which occurred more 
than a century before the time to which he ascribes 
them : "on the testimony," as he says, "of very aged 
men, who had received this tradition, as a burning 
torch passed from hand to hand." And this belated 
narrative has appeared, and may still appear, some- 
what doubtful. We ourselves consider the doubt to 
be exaggerated, but we shall not insist on that. The 
specimens survive which gave rise to such legends 

* Published by John Koelhoff under the name of " Cronica van der 
hilHger Stat van Coellen," p. 31 and after. 


and commentaries ; and it is fitting they should be 

Four editions of the " Speculum " are known, two 
in Dutch and two in Latin. It must be understood 
that we only speak of the editions which have no pub- 
lishers' names, no dates, nor any sign of the place 
where they were published : the " Speculum," a sort of 
Christian handbook, much used in the Low Countries, 
having been frequently reprinted, with due indication 
of names and places, during and after the last twenty 
years of the fifteenth century. The oldest Dutch 
edition that is dated, the one of 1483, printed by 
John Veldenaer, reproduces certain engravings which 
had already embellished the four anonymous editions, 
with the difference that the plates have been sawn 
in two to suit the dimensions of a smaller volume. 
Hence, whatever conjectures may exist as to the date 
of the first publication, we have, at least, a positive 
fact : as the original plates only appear in a muti- 
lated state in the copies printed in 1483, it is evident 
that the four edjtions where they appear entire are of 
earlier date. These questions remain : — first, whether 
they are earlier, too, than the second half of the 
fifteenth century — earlier, that is, than the time when 
Gutenberg gave to the world the results of his labour? 
and second, whether they originated, like the edition 
of Donatus, in a Dutch workshop ? 

Doubt seems impossible on the last point. These 

four editions are all printed with the same cuts, 

on the same paper made in Brabant, and under the 

same typographical conditions, with the exception of 



some slight differences in the characters of the two 
Dutch editions, and the insertion of twenty leaves 
xylographically printed in one of the two Latin 
editions. Is it, then, likely, or even possible, that 
these books belong, as has been supposed, to 
Germany ? 

The thing might, indeed, be possible, were it 
merely a question of the copies in Latin ; but the 
Dutch ones cannot be supposed to have been pub- 
lished anywhere but in Holland ; and the origin of 
the latter once established, how are we to explain 
the typographical imperfection of the work if not by 
ignorance of the process which Gutenberg was to 
popularise? According to M. Paeile, a competent 
judge in such a matter,^ the letterpress of the Dutch 
" Speculum " is written in the pure dialect of North 
Holland, as it was spoken in those parts towards the 
end of the fourteenth century and the beginning of 
the fifteenth. Armed, therefore, with but a few par- 
ticulars as to printing and idiom, it will not be too 
bold in us to fix the date of publication between the 
first and second quarters of the fifteenth century. It 
may be added that the costume of the figures is of 
the time of Philip the Good ; that the taste and style 
of the drawing suggests the influence of the brothers 
Van Eyck ; and that there is a decided contrast 
between the typographical imperfection of the text 
and the excellent quality of the plates. Art, and 

* ** Essai historique et critique sur I'lnvention de rimprimerie." 
Lille, 1859. 

German Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century.) 
C 2 



art already well on its way and confident of its 
powers, is thus seen side by side with an industrial 
process still in its infancy : a remarkable proof of the 

Fig. 3.— ST. VERONICA. 
German Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century. 

advances already accomplished in wood engraving 
before printing had got beyond the rudimentary 
period. For our present purpose, this is the chief 
point, the essential fact to verify. 

FlO. 4. — ST. JOHN, 
Hemish Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century,) 


The discovery of printing, therefore, is doubtless 
a result of the example of relief engraving, and 
there is no doubt either that the first attempts at 
printing with type originated in Holland. Whilst 
Coster, or the predecessor of Gutenberg, whoever he 
was, was somewhat feebly preparing the way for typo- 
graphical industry, painting and the arts of design 
generally had in the Low Countries attained a degree 
of development which they had not before reached, 
except in Italy. Amongst the German contempo- 
raries of Hubert and John van Eyck, what rival was 
there to compare with these two masters .'* — what 
teacher with so notable an influence, or so fertile 
a teaching .'* Whilst, on the banks of the Rhine, 
artists unworthy of the name and painters destitute 
of talent were continuing the Gothic traditions and 
the formulae of their predecessors, the school of 
Bruges was renewing, or rather founding, a national 
art. By the beginning of the fifteenth century the 
revolution was accomplished in this school, which 
was already distinguished by the Van Eycks, and 
to which Memling was about to add fresh lustre. 
Germany, too, in a few years was to glory in a like 
success ; but the movement did not set in till after 
the second half of the century. Till then everything 
remained dead, everything betrayed an extreme 
poverty of method and doctrine. If we judge the 
German art of the time by such work, for instance, as 
the " St. Christopher," engraved in 1423, a single glance 
is sufficient to reveal the marked superiority of the con- 
temporary Flemings. It is, then, far from unnatural 


Flemish Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century. 



that, at a time when painters, goldsmiths, and all 
other artists in Flanders were so plainly superior in 

Fig. 6.— JESUS, saviour of the world. 
German Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century.) 

skill to their co-workers in Germany, the Flemish en- 
gravers should likewise have led the van of progress, 

Fig. 7.— the crucifixion. 
German Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century.) 


and taken their places as the first in the history 
of their art. 

It may be said that the proofs are insufficient. Be 
it so. We shall not look for them in the ''Virgin' 
on wood, belonging to the Brussels Library, and 
bearing the date 141 8, as the authenticity of this 
date, to our thinking perfectly genuine, has been 
disputed ; nor shall we seek for them in the anony- 
mous examples which it seems to us but just to 
ascribe to the old school of the Low Countries.^ 

Up to now we are willing to admit that only Ger- 
many is in a position to produce a piece of evidence 
beyond suspicion. With its imposing date of 1423, 
its time-honoured rights, and official renown, the 
" St. Christopher," now in the library of Lord Spencer, 
has privileges which cannot be disputed or questioned. 
But it does not follow that the wood-cuts of the 
'* Speculum," of the " Biblia Pauperum," of the 
" Ars Moriendi," and of similar undated publications, 
must be more recent. Nor, because a dated German 
print has survived, must it therefore be concluded 
that nothing was produced at that time except in 

* This, at any rate, is what we feel tempted to do as regards 
the "Biblia Pauperum," a book containing xylographic illustrations, 
whose date has been variously estimated, and which we are disposed 
to believe even older than the first edition of the '* Speculum." 
Ileinecken, as usual, claims for Germany the production of this pre- 
cious collection, which Ottley, with more appearance of reason, re- 
gards as the work of an artist of the Low Countries, who worked about 
1420. In this way Germany would only have the right to claim the 
plates added in the German editions published forty years later, and 
which are far less perfect in point of style and arrangement than those 
of the original edition. 



Germany. It should be particularly observed that 
the plates of the "Speculum'^ seem well-nigh prodigies 

Fig, 8. — the apocalypse of st. john, 
Dutch Wood Engraving. (Fifteenth Century,) 


of pictorial skill and knowledge in comparison with the 
"St. Christopher ;" that their author must have served 
a long apprenticeship in a good school ; that, in short, 
no art begins with such a piece of work, and that, 
even supposing these cuts did not appear till after 
the German print, some time had doubtless elapsed 
during which the progress they involve had been pre- 
pared and pursued. 

It is therefore reasonable to suppose that, from 
the first years of the fifteenth century, the engravers of 
the Low Countries began, under the influence of the 
Van Eycks, to be initiated into the conditions of art, 
and that, like their countrymen the printers, they 
showed the path which others were to clear and level. 
It must be remarked, however, that in the beginning 
printing and wood engraving do not always march on 
parallel lines — that they do not meet in like order 
their successive periods of trial and advance. In Ger- 
many, up till the time when Gutenberg attained the 
final stage, and popularised the last secrets of the 
printing process, painters, draughtsmen, and engravers 
were all helpless in a rut : from the author of the 
" St. Christopher " to the engravers of thirty years 
later, they boast but the roughest and coarsest of 
ideas and methods. Heinecken, the exaggerated 
champion of the German cause as against the par- 
tisans of Coster, whom he contemptuously calls 
" the beadle '^^ — Heinecken himself, speaking of the 
first German books engraved on wooden tablets, is 

* The Dutch word cos/er means churchw arden, or beadle. 


obliged to admit that " when the drawing is examined 
with a connoisseur's eye, a heavy and barbarous taste 
appears to reign throughout." "^ In Germany the artistic 
part was to wait upon and follow the example of the 
industrial : was to lag behind and to plod on in bar- 
barism long after the industrial revolution was ac- 
complished at its side. And it was long before the 
"wood-cutting" engravers acquired anything like 
the skill of the printers employed by Gutenberg and 
by Fiist. 

In the Low Countries, on the other hand, the re- 
generation of art preceded mechanical improvement. 
Even when the latter was in full progress, nay, even 
when a grand discovery had revealed all the capa- 
bilities and fixed the limits of printing, engraving was 
by no means subordinated, as in Germany, to the ad- 
vance of the new process, but, on the contrary, had long 
since acquired a clearness and certainty of execution 
which was still lacking in the works of the printers. 
The " Speculum," as we have said, bears testimony to 
that sort of anomaly between the mechanical imperfec- 
tion of the Dutch printed texts of the fifteenth century 
and the merit of the plates by which they were ac- 
companied. Other exaniples might be mentioned, 
but it is useless to multiply evidence, and to insist 
on details. We shall have accomplished enough if we 
have succeeded in accentuating some of the principal 
features, and in summing up the essential character- 
istics of engraving, at the time of the Incunabuli. 

♦ " Ide^ gen^rale d'une Collection d'Estampes, 1771," p. 305. 




In our endeavour to prove the relative antiquity of 
wood engraving in the Low Countries, we have in- 
tentionally rather deferred the purely archaeological 
question, and have sought the first signs of talent 
instead of the bold beginnings of the art. The 
origin of wood engraving, materially considered, can- 
not be said to be confined to the time and country 
of the pupils of Van Eyck. It was certainly in their 
hands that it first began to show signs of being a 
real art, and give promise for the future ; but we have 
still to inquire how many years it had been practised 
in Europe, through what phases it had already pas.sed, 
and to what uses it had been applied, before it took 
this start and received this consecration. 

We treat this question of origin with some re- 
serve, and must repeat as our excuse that savants 
have pushed their researches so far, and unhappily 
with such conflicting results, and have found, or have 
thought they found, in the accounts of travellers, or in 
ancient official or historical documents, so many proofs 
and arguments in support of different systems, that 
it becomes equally difficult to accept or to finally 
reject their various conclusions. The prevailing 


Opinion, however, attributes to the makers of playing 
cards, if not the discovery of wood engraving, at 
least its first practical application in Europe. Many 
writers agree on the general principle, but agreement 
ends when it comes to be question of the date and 
place of the earliest attempts. Some pronounce 
in favour of the fourteenth century and Germany ; 
others plead for France, where they say cards were in 
use from the beginning of the reign of Philip of 
Valois. Others again, to support the claims of Italy, 
arm themselves with a passage quoted by Tiraboschi 
from the " Trattato del Governo della Famiglia," a 
work written, according to them, in 1299; and they 
suppose, besides, that the commercial relations of 
Japan and China with Venice would have introduced 
into that town before any other the use of cards and 
the art of making them. 

Emeric David, one of the most recent authorities, 
carries things with a still higher hand. He begins 
by setting aside all the claimants — Germany with the 
Low Countries, France as well as Italy.* Where 
playing cards were first used, or whether any par- 
ticular xylographic collection belongs or not to the 
first years of the fifteenth century, are matters of 
extremely small importance in his eyes. In the 
documents brought forward by competent experts 
as the most ancient remains of wood engraving, he 
finds instead a testimony to the uninterrupted prac- 
tice of the art in Europe. For the real origin the 

* " Discours Historique sur la Gravure." Paris, 1808. 


author of the " Discours sur la Gravure " does not 
hesitate to go boldly back beyond the Christian era. 
Nor does he stop there ; but sees in the practice of 
the Greeks under the successors of Alexander a mere 
continuance of the traditions of those Asiatic peoples 
who were accustomed from time immemorial to print 
on textile fabrics by means of wooden moulds. 

It would be too troublesome to discuss his facts or 
his conclusions ; so many examples borrowed from 
the poets, from the historians of antiquity, and the 
Fathers of the Church, appear to sustain his perhaps 
too comprehensive theory. The best and the shortest 
plan will be to take it upon trust, and to admit on 
the authority of Homer, Herodotus, Ezekiel, and St. 
Clement of Alexandria, that from the heroic ages 
till the early days of Christianity, there has been no 
break in the practice of printing upon various ma- 
terials from wooden blocks. Still less need we grudge 
the Middle Ages the possession of a secret already 
the common property of so many centuries. 

But the printing of textiles does not imply the 
knowledge and practice of engraving properly so 
called ; and many centuries may have passed without 
any attempt to use this merely industrial process for 
finer ends, or to apply it to the purposes of art. 
Seals with letters cut in relief were smeared with 
colour and impressed on vellum or paper long before 
the invention of printing. The small stamps or 
patterns with which the scribes and illuminators 
transferred the outlines of capital letters to their 
manuscripts, might well have suggested the last 


advance. And yet how many years and experiments 
were required to bring it to perfection ! Why may 
we not suppose that the art of engraving, Hke the 
art of printing, in spite of early, partial, and analogous 
discoveries, may have waited long for its hour of 
birth ? And when block printing was once brought 
from Asia into Europe, why may it not have suffered 
the same fate as other inventions equally ingenious 
in principle and equally limited in their earlier appli- 
cations ? Glass, for instance, was well known by the 
nations of antiquity ; but how long a time elapsed 
before it was applied to windows ? 

We have said that according to a generally re- 
ceived opinion we must look upon playing cards as 
the oldest remains of xylography. But the evidence 
on which this opinion is based has only a negative 
authority. Because the old books in which cards are 
mentioned say nothing of any other productionsof wood 
engraving, it has been inferred that such productions 
did not yet exist; but is it not allowable to ask if the 
silence of writers in such a case absolutely establishes 
such a negative.'* Might not this silence be explained 
by the nature of the work, and of the subject treated, 
which was generally literary or philosophical, and quite 
independent of questions of art ? When speaking of 
cards, whether to formally forbid or only to restrain 
their use, the chroniclers and the moralists of the 
fourteenth century, or of the beginning of the fifteenth, 
probably thought but little of the way they were 
made. Their intention was to denounce a vice rather 
than to describe an industrial process. Why, then, 


should they have troubled about other works in which 
this process was employed, not only without danger to 
religion and morality, but with a view of honouring 
both ? Pious pictures cut in wood by the hands of 
monks or artisans might have been well known at this 
time, although contemporary authors may have chosen 
to mention only cards ; and, without pushing con- 
jecture too far, we may take the liberty of supposing 
that engravers first drew their inspiration from the 
same source as illuminators, painters on glass, and 
sculptors. Besides, we know well that art was then 
only the naive expression of religion and the emblem 
of Christian thought. Why should the cutters of 
xylographic figures have been an exception to the 
general rule ? and what strange freak would have led 
them to choose as the subject of their first efforts a 
species of work so contrary to the manners and 
traditions of all the schools ? 

Setting aside written testimony, and consulting the 
engravings themselves which have been handed down 
to us from former centuries, we are entitled to say that 
the very oldest playing cards are, at the most, contem- 
poraneous with the "St. Christopher" of 1423 and the 
oldest known wood-cuts, inasmuch as the engraving of 
these cards certainly does not date back beyond the 
reign of Charles VII. That the Italian, German, or 
French taroccJii (ornamented chequers or cards) were 
in use before that time is possible ; but as none of 
these early tarocchi have survived, it cannot be known 
to what extent they represent the progress of the art, 
and how far they may have served as models for other 


xylographic works : even though it be true that 
reHef engraving, and not merely drawing with- the 
pen, was the means first employed for the making 
of the taroccJii mentioned here and there in the 

Such French cards as have come down to us would 
lead us to believe, in any case, that the progress was 
slow enough, for they still reveal an extraordinary 
want of experience both as to shape and effect, and 
have all the timidity of an art still in its infancy. 
This must also be said of works of the same kind , 
executed in Germany in the fifteenth century; except 
the cards, attributed to a contemporary of the Master 
of 1466, and these are engraved on metal. In Italy 
alone, cards, or rather the symbolical pieces known 
rightly or wrongly by the name of larocchi, possessed, 
from an artistic point of view, real importance from 
the time when engraving on metal had begun to take 
the place of wood-cutting. The artists initiated by 
Finiguerra into the secrets of the new method dis- 
played good taste, knowledge, and skill ; and in such 
less important work, as well as in that of a higher 
order, their talent at last inaugurated an era of real 
progress and of fruitful enterprise. 

It is of no consequence, for the matter of that, 
whether wood engraving was first applied to the 
making of pious pictures or to the manufacture of 
cards. In any case the process is generally looked 
upon as the oldest method of engraving, and as the 
first to give types to be multiplied in proofs by 


M. Leon de Laborde, one of the clearest and best 
informed writers on the origins of engraving and typo- 
graphy, considers, on the other hand, that engraving 
in reHef on metal, rather than the xylographic process, 
was the proximate cause of the discovery of printing. 
In a work pubHshed in 1839, which unfortunately 
has yet to receive the amplifications promised by the 
author,* M. de Laborde declares that the first printed 
engravings must have been dotted ones : that is, 
prints produced in the peculiar mode already touched 
upon, and in which the black parts come out sprinkled 
with white dots. According to him, engraving, or, to 
speak more exactly, the printing of engraved work, 
must have been invented by goldsmiths rather than by 
draughtsmen or illuminators. The former, by the nature 
of their craft, possessed the tools and the necessary 
materials, and were therefore in a better position than 
any one else to stumble upon the discovery of the 
process, if not deliberately to invent it. As matter of 
fact, many of those who worked in the Low Countries, 
or in the Rhenish provinces, during the first years 
of the fifteenth century, printed works in the early dot 
manner: in other words, engraved in relief on metal. 
And those xylographic specimens which are usually 
looked upon as the oldest examples of engraving, are 
in reality only the outcome of a reformation, and the 
product of an art already modified. 

* See in **L' Artiste," 1839, an article entitle:! "La ] lus ancienne 
Gravure du Cabinet des Estampes de la Bibliotheque royale est-elle 
ancienne ? " 


Fig. 9.— JESUS Christ carrying the cross. 
Engraving in the Dot Manner (1406^ 


The opinion expressed some time ago by M. Ldon 
de Laborde has recently been supported by the dis- 
covery of two engravings, in the early dot manner, 
belonging, we think, to the year 1406, and on which 
we have ourselves published some remarks."^ But our 
argument being only founded on the similarity of 
certain external facts, so to speak, and on the proba- 
bility of certain calculations, it is not really possible 
to attribute to these documents so secure a standing 
as to those whose age is established by dates, and set 
practically beyond question. 

Now, the oldest of the dated engravings in relief 
on metal is the " St. Bernardino of Siena," wrongly 
called the " St. Bernard," belonging to the Bibliotheque 
Nationale in Paris. This engraving in the dot manner 
bears the date 1454. It is, therefore, later than the " St. 
Christopher" engraved on wood, and later even, as we 
shall presently see, than the first engraving in incised 
line, the " Pax," by Finiguerra, whose date of printing 
is certain. Remembering these facts, the separation 
of the oldest dotted prints from the first specimens of 
true engraving is only permissible on the ground that 
they are works executed by a special process. Con- 
sidered from a purely artistic point of view, they offer 
little interest. Their drawing, still ruder than that 
of the German wood-cuts, exhibits an almost hiero- 
glyphic unreality. Their general effect is purely con- 
ventional ; and, owing to the uniform depth of the 

* " Notice sur deux Estampes de 1406, et sur les Commencements de 
Ifx Gravur^enCiiblo." ** Gazette des Beaux-arts," t. i"", 2'' periode, 1869. 

Fig. 10.— the holy face. 
Engraving in the Dot Manner (1406). 



blacks, their insignificant modelling expresses neither 
the relief nor the comparative depression of the forms. 


iiD uta ♦^aomtttl^Tiuim^ utf tAOi^' .'itttrft t;i'ia« 

Engraving in the Dot Manner (1451). 



In short, we find in these early dotted prints nothing 
but perfect falseness to nature, and all the mendacity 



Mngraving in the Dot Mr.nner. (Fifteenth Century.) 


inherent in feebleness of taste and slavish conformity 
to system. 

How comes it that this sorry child's-play has 
appeared to deserve in our day attention which is not 
always conceded to more serious work ? This might 
be better excused had these prints been investigated 
in order to demonstrate the principles of the method 
followed afterwards by the engravers of illustrations 
for books. The charming borders, for instance, which 
adorn the " Books of Hours," printed in France 
at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of 
the sixteenth centuries, would naturally suggest 
comparisons between the way in which many parts 
are stippled, and the process of the early dotted 
engraving. But we may surely term excessive the 
efforts of certain scholars to fix on these defective 
attempts in a particular method of work the attention 
of a public naturally attracted elsewhere. The fact 
is, however, that in this matter, as well as in questions 
relating to the origin of wood engraving and printing, 
national self-respect was at stake, and writers sought 
in the narrow field of archaeology a victory over rival 
claims which they might less easily have achieved on 
other grounds. 

Between the authors of the Low Countries and 
of Germany, long accustomed to skirmishes of the 
kind, this new conflict might have begun and con- 
tinued without awaking much interest in other 
nations ; but, contrary to custom, these counterclaims 
originated neither in Germany nor in the Low 
Countries. For the first time the name of France was 


heard of in a dispute as to the origin of engraving ; 

Fig. 13.— JESUS on the mount of olives. 
Engraving in the Dot Manner. (Fifteenth Century.) 

and though there was but scant honour to be gained, 
the unforeseen rivalry did not fail to give additional 


interest to the struggle, and, in France at least, to 
meet with a measure of favour. 

The words " Bernhardinus Milnet," deciphered, or 
supposed to be deciphered, at the bottom of an old 
dotted engraving, representing " The Virgin and the 
Infant Jesus," were taken for the signature of a French 
engraver, and the discovery was turned to further profit 
by the assumption that the said "Bernard or Bernardin 
Milnet " engraved all the prints of this particular 
class ; although, even supposing these to belong to a 
single school, they manifestly could not all belong 
to a single epoch. The invention and monopoly of 
dotted engraving once attributed to a single country, 
or rather to a single man, these assertions continued to 
gain ground for some time, and were even repeated in 
literary and historical works. A day, however, came 
when they began to lose credit ; and as doubts entered 
even the minds of his countrymen, the supposed 
Bernard Milnet is now deprived of his name and 
title, and is very properly regarded as an imaginary 

Does it follow from this, as M. Passavant "^ would 
have it, that all these prints, naturalised for a little 
while in France, ought to be restored to Germany ? 
Their contradictory character with regard to work- 
manship and style might cause one, with the most 
honest intentions, to hesitate, though their intrinsic 
value is not such as to cause the former country any 
great loss. 

* " Le Peintre-Graveur," Leipzig, i860, vol. i., p. 84. 



Indeed, it is difficult to conceive of anything 
less interesting, except with regard to the particular 



■^ o 

nature of the process. The outlines of the figures 
have none of that drawing, firm even to stiffness, nor 



has the flow of the draperies that taste for abrupt 
forms, which distinguished the productions of the 
German school from its beginnings. The least feeble 
of these specimens, such as the " Saint Barbara," in 
the Brussels Library, or the " St. George on Horse- 
back," preserved in the Print Department of the Biblio- 

theque Nationale in 
Paris, do indeed occa- 
sionally suggest some 
similarity of origin 
or manner with the 
school of Van Eyck. 
But it is unnecessary 
to debate the point 
at greater length. 
Whether produced in 
France, in the Low 
Countries, or in Ger- 
many, the dotted en- 
gravings of the fif- 
teenth century add so 
little lustre to the land 
which gave them 
birth, that no scepti- 
cism as to their origin 
need lie very heavily on the conscience. In the 
general history of the documents on the origin of en- 
graving, the dotted prints form a series distinguished 
by the method of their execution from any other ear- 
lier or contemporary specirnens of work ; the date 
mark 1454, borne by one among the number, gives us 

FlQ. 15.— ST. DOMINIC. 

Engraving in the Dot Manner. 
(Fifteenth Century.) 


authentic information as to the time of these strange 
experiments, these curiosities of handicraft rather 
than of art. This is as much as we need to bear 
in mind upon the subject, and quite enough to 
complete the history of the elementary attempts 
which preceded or which co-existed for a few years 
with the beginning of engraving by incised line in 

We have now arrived at that decisive moment when 
engraving, endowed with fresh resources, was practised 
for the first time by real masters. Up to the present, 
the trifling ability and skill possessed by certain ' 
wood-cutters and the peculiar methods of dotted en- 
graving have been the only means by which we could 
measure the efforts expended in the search for new 
technical methods, or in their use when discovered. 
We have now done with such hesitating and halting 
progress. The art of printing from plates cut in 
intaglio had no sooner been discovered by, or at least 
dignified by the practice of, a Florentine goldsmith, 
than upon every side fresh talent was evoked. In 
Italy and Germany it was a question of who should 
profit most and quickest by the advance. A spirit of 
rivalry at once arose between the two schools; and 
fifteen years had not elapsed since Italian art had 
given its note in the works of the goldsmith engravers 
of the school of Finiguerra, before German art had 
found an equally definite expression in the works 
of the Master of 1466. But, before examining this 
simultaneous progress, we shall have to say a few 
words on the historical part of the question, and to 


return to the origin of the process of intaglio en- 
graving, as we have ah-eady done with the origin of 
engraving in relief. This part of our subject must 
be briefly and finally disposed of; we may then alto- 
gether abandon the uncertain ground of archaeological 




We have seen that Gutenberg's permanent improve- 
ments in the method of printing resulted in the 
substitution, so far as written speech was concerned, 
of a mode of reproduction almost infinitely fruitful, 
and even rapid when compared to the slowness and 
the limited resources of the xylographic method. 
Typography was destined to abolish the use of block 
printing, and more particularly of caligraphy, which, 
till then, had occupied so many pious and patient 
hands both in monasteries and in schools. The art 
of printing from engravings worked similar mischief 
to the illuminator's craft. Such were, before long, the 
natural consequences of the progress made ; and, we 
may add, such had been from the first the chief 
[object of these innovations. 

Perhaps this double revolution, so potent in its 
[general effect and in its influence on modern civi- 
tlisation, may have appeared to those engaged in 
fit no more important than a purely industrial im- 
provement. Surely, for instance, we do no injustice 
to Gutenberg if we accept with some reserve the vast 


political and philosophical ideas, and the purposes of 
universal enfranchisement, with which he has been 
sometimes credited ? Probably the views of the 
inventor of printing reached neither so far nor so 
high. He did not intend to figure as an apostle, 
nor did he regard himself ^as devoted to a philan- 
thropic mission, as we should put it in the present day. 
He considered himself no more than a workman with 
a happy thought, when he proposed to replace the 
lengthy and costly labours of the copyist by a process 
so much cheaper and so much more expeditious. 

A somewhat similar idea had already occurred 
to the xylographic printers. Even the title of one 
of the first books published by them, the " Biblia 
Pauperum," or " Bible for the Poor," proved their 
wish to place within the reach of the masses an 
equivalent to those illuminated manuscript copies 
which were only obtainable by the rich. One glance 
at the ancient xylographic collections is enough to 
disclose the spirit in which such work was under- 
taken, and the design with which it was conceived. 
The new industry imitated in every particular the 
appearance of those earlier works due to the pen of 
the scribe or to the brush of the illuminator ; and, 
perhaps, the printers themselves, speculating on the 
want of discernment in the purchasing public, thought 
less of exposing the secret of their method than of 
maintaining an illusion. 

In most of the xylographic books, indeed, the 
first page is quite without ornamentation. There are 
neither chapter-headings nor ornamental capitals; the 


blank space seems to await the hand of the illumi- 
nator^ who should step in to finish the work of the 
printer, and complete the resemblance between the 
printed books and the manuscript. Gutenberg fol- 
lowed ; and even he, although less closely an imitator 
of caligraphy, did not himself disdain at first to prac- 
tise some deception as to the nature of his method. 
It is said that the Bible he printed at Mayence was 
sold as manuscript ; and the letterpress is certainly 
not accompanied by any technical explanation, or 
by any note of the printer's name or the mode of 
fabrication. Not till somewhat later, when he pub- 
lished the "Catholicon," did Gutenberg avow that he 
had printed this book "without the help of reed, quill," 
or stylus, but by means of a marvellous array of 
moulds and punches." Even in this specimen of a 
process already settled and finally disclosed to the 
public, the capital letters were left blank in the 
printing, and were afterwards filled in with brush or 
pen. It was a farewell salutation to the past, and 
the latest appearance of that old art which was now 
doomed to pass away before the new, and to leave the 
field to the products of the press. 

Did the inventor of the art of printing from plates 
cut in intaglio, like the inventor of the art of typo- 
graphy, only wish at first to extend to a larger 
public what had hitherto been reserved for the 
favoured few ? Was early engraving but a weapon 
turned against the monopoly of the miniature painter? 
We might be tempted to think so, from the number 
of manuscripts belonging to the second half of the 
E 2 


fifteenth century, in which coloured prints, surrounded 
by borders also coloured, are set opposite a printed 
text, apparently in order to imitate as nearly as 
possible the familiar aspect of illuminated books. 
Next in turn came printed books with illustrations, 
and loose sheets published separately for every-day 
use. The Italian engravers, even before they began 
to adorn with the burin those works which have been 
the most frequently illustrated — such, for instance, 
as the religious handbooks and the poem of Dante — 
employed the new process from as early as 1465, to 
assure their calendars a wider publicity. But let us 
return to the time when engraving was yet in its early 
stages, and when — by chance, by force of original 
genius, or by the mere completion of what had been 
begun by other hands — a Florentine goldsmith, one 
Maso Finiguerra, succeeded in fixing on paper the 
impression of a silver plate on which lines had been 
engraved in intaglio and filled with black. 

Finiguerra's great glory does not, however, lie in 
the solution of the practical difficulty. Amongst 
the Italians none before him had ever thought of 
trying to print from a work engraved in incised line 
or intaglio on metal ; and therefore, at least, in his own 
country, he deser\'ed the honours of priority. But 
the invention of the process — that is, in the absolute 
and literal sense of its name, the notion of repro- 
ducing burin work by printing — was certainly not 
peculiar to Finiguerra. Unconscious of what was 
passing elsewhere, he may have been the first in 
Florence to attempt this revolution in art ; but, 


beyond the frontiers of Italy, many had already 
employed for the necessities of trade that method 
which it was his to turn into a powerful instrument 
of art. His true glory consists in the unexpected 
authority with which he inaugurated the movement. 
Although it may be true that there are prints a few 
years older than any Florentine niello — the German 
specimens of 1446, discovered but the other day by 
M. Renouvier,^ or the "Virgin" of 145 1 described by 
M. Passavant f — it cannot change the real date of the 
invention of engraving ; that date has been written 
by the hand of a man of talent, the first engraver 
worthy of the name of artist. 

That Finiguerra was really the inventor of en- 
graving, because he dignified the new process by the 
striking ability with which he used it, and proved 
his power where his contemporaries had only ex- 
hibited their weakness, must be distinctly laid down, 
even at the risk of scandalising some of the learned. 
He has the same right to celebrity as Gutenberg, who, 
like him, was but the discoverer of a decisive advance ; 
the same right also as Nicolo Pisano and Giotto, the 
real founders of the race of the Great Masters, and, 
truly speaking, the first painter and the first sculptor 
who appeared in Italy, although neither sculpture 
nor painting were even novelties at the moment 
of their birth. As a mere question of date, the 
" Pax " of Florence may not be the earliest example 

* " Une Passion de 1446. Suite cle Gravurcs au Burin, les pre- 
mieres avec Date." Montpellier, 1857. 

t " Archiv fiir die Zeichntnden Kunslc," 1858. 


of engraving ; be it so. But in which of these earHer 
attempts, now so much acclaimed as arguments against 
the accepted tradition, can we gleain even the faintest 
promise of the merits which distinguish that illustrious 
engraving } He who wrought it is no usurper ; his 
fame is a legitimate conquest. 

It is a singular coincidence that the discovery of 
printing and that of the art of taking proofs on paper 
from a plate engraved in intaglio, or, to speak more 
exactly, that the final improvements of both these pro- 
cesses, should have sprung up almost simultaneously, 
one in Italy and the other in Germany. There is 
only an interval of two years between the time when 
Finiguerra printed his first engraving in 1452, and the 
time when Gutenberg exhibited his first attempts at 
printing in 1454. Till then, copies drawn, painted, 
or written by hand had been the only efficient means 
of reproduction. None, even amongst those most 
capable of original thought or action, considered 
it beneath them to set forth the thought of others. 
Boccaccio and Petrarch exchanged whole books of 
Livy or of Cicero which they had patiently transcribed, 
and monkish or professional artists copied on the 
vellum of missals the paintings which covered the walls 
or adorned the altars of their churches. Such subjects 
as were engraved on wood were only designed to 
stimulate the devotion of the pious. Both by their 
inadequate execution, and the special use for which 
they were intended, they must rank as industrial 
products rather than as works of art. 

Besides illumination and wood engraving, there 


was a process sometimes used to copy certain originals, 
portraits or fancy subjects, but more frequently em- 
ployed by goldsmiths in the decoration of chalices, 
reliquaries, and altar canons. This process was no- 
thing but a. special application and combination 
of the resources belonging to the long known arts 
of enamelling and chalcography, which last simply 
means engraving on metal. The incised lines made 
by the graver in a plate of silver, or of silver and gold 
combined, were filled with a mixture of lead, silver, 
and copper, made more easily fusible by the addition 
of a certain quantity of borax and sulphur. This 
blackish-coloured mixture {jiigelhnn, whence niello, 
niellare) left the unengraved parts exposed, and, in 
cooling, became encrusted in the furrows where it had 
been introduced. After this, the plate, when carefully 
polished, presented to the eye the contrastof a design iu 
dull black enamel traced upon a field of shining metal 
Towards the middle of the fifteenth century this 
kind of engraving was much practised in Italy, espe- 
cially in Florence, where the best niellatori were to 
be found. One of them, Tomaso, or for short, Maso 
Finigucrra, was, like many goldsmiths of his time, at 
once an engraver, a designer, and a sculptor. The 
drawings attributed to him, his nielli, and the bas- 
reliefs partly by him and partly by Antonio Pollajuolo, 
would not, perhaps, have been enough to have pre- 
served his memory : it is his invention — in the degree 
we mentioned — of the art of printing intaglio engrav- 
ings, or rather of the art of engraving itself, that has 
made him immortal. 


What, however, can seem more simple than this 
discovery ? It is even difficult to understand why it 
was not made before, when we remember not only 
that the printing of blocks engraved in relief had been 
practised since the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
but that the niellatori themselves were in the habit of 
taking, first in clay and then in sulphur, an impres- 
sion and a counter-impression of their work before 
applying the enamel. What should seem more simple 
than to have taken a direct proof on a thin elastic 
body such as paper ? But it is always easy to criticise 
after the event, and to point out the road of progress 
when the end has been attained. Who knows if to-day 
there is not lying at our very hand some discovery 
which yet we never think of grasping, and if our pre- 
sent blindness will not be. the cause of similar wonder 
to our successors ? 

At any rate, Finiguerra had found the solution of 
the problem by 1452. This was put beyond doubt 
on the day towards the close of the last century (1797), 
when Zani discovered, in the Print - Room of the 
Paris Library, a niello by Finiguerra printed on paper 
of indisputable date. 

This little print, or rather proof, taken before the 
plate was put in niello, of a " Pax"^ engraved by the 
Florentine goldsmith for the Baptistery of St. John, 

* The *' Pa?^" is a metal plate vhich, at high mass and during the 
singing of the "Agnus Dei," the officiating priest gives to be kissed by 
the clergy and the devout, addressing to each of them these words: 
" Pax tecum." The " Pax " made by Finiguerra for the Baptistery of 
St, John has been removed frcm thence to the Uffizi, where it still is. 

Fir,. l6. — l-IMCUtRRA. 

The " Pax' of the Baptistery of St. John at Florence, 




(Fifteenth Century.) 

represents the Coronation of the Virgin. It measures 
only 130 milHmetres by 87. As regards its size, 

therefore, the ''Coronation " 
is really only a vignette ; 
but it is a vignette handled 
with such knowledge and 
style, and informed with so 
deep a feeling for beauty, 
that it would bear with per- 
fect impunity the ordeal of 
being enlarged a hundred 
times and transferred to 
a canvas or a wall. Its 
claims as an archaeological 
specimen, and the value that four centuries have added 
to this small piece of perishable paper, must assuredly 
neither be forgotten nor misunder- 
stood by any one. Yet he would 
be ill-advised, on the other hand, 
who should regard this master- 
piece of art as a mere historical 

The rare merits which dis- 
tinguish Finigucrra's "Catenation" 
are to be seen, though much less 
conspicuously, in a certain number 
of works attributed to the same 
origin. Other pieces engraved at 
the same time, and printed under 
the same conditions by unknown Florentine work- 
men, prove that the example given in 1452 had 

Fig. 18. 
italian niello. 
(Fifteenth Century.) 


at once -created imitators. It must be remarked, how- 
ever, that amongst such works, whether attributed to 
Finiguerra or to other goldsmiths of the same time 
and country, none belong to the class of engravings 
properly so called. In other 
words they are only what we 
have agreed to call nielli : 
that is, proofs on paper of 
plates designed to be after- 
wards enamelled, and not im- 
pressions of plates specially and 
finally intended to be used for 
printing. It would almost ap- 
pear that the master and his 
first followers failed to foresee 
all the results and benefits of 
this discovery ; that they looked 
upon it only as a surer test 
of work than clay or sulphur 
casts, as a test process suitable 
to certain stages of the labours 
of the goldsmith. In one word, 
from the time when he made 

his first success till the en4 of his life, Finiguerra 
probably only used the new process to forward his 
work as a niellatore, without its ever occurring to him 
to employ it for its own sake, and in the spirit of a 
real engraver. 

Florentine engravings of the fifteenth century, 
other than in niello, or those at least whose origin and 
date are certain, are not only later than Finiguerra's 

(Fifteenth Century.) 


working days, but are even later than the year of 
his death (1470). In Germany, from the very be- 
ginning, so to speak, of the period of initiation, the 
Master of 1466 and his disciples were multiply- 
ing impressions of their works, and profiting by the 
full resources of the new process. In Florence, on 
the contrary, there passed about twenty years during 
which the art seems to have remained stationary and 
confined to the same narrow field of practice as at 
first. You may visit the richest public or private 
collections without meeting (with the exception of 
works in niello) any authentic and official specimen of 
Florentine engraving of the time of which we speak.^ 
You may open books and catalogues, and find no 
mention of any engraved subject that can be called a 
print earlier than those attributed to Baccio Baldini, or 
to Botticelli, which only appeared in the last quarter 
of the century. Yet it is impossible to find any 
explanation of this sterility — of this extraordinary 
absence of a school of engravers, in the exact 
acceptation of the word, outside of the group of the 

Some years later, however, progress had led to 
emancipation. The art of engraving, henceforth free, 
broke from its industrial servitude, deserted the 

* It is useless to adduce the fine " Profile of a Woman," dis- 
covered a few years ago at Bologna, and now the property of the Berlin 
Museum, as an argument against the poverty we are trying to prove. 
This very important document is not only of uncertain date, but, as 
we have remarked elsewhere, the nature of its execution and st) le for- 
bid one to lock upon it as the work of any Florentine artist. 

2 i 

O rt 

^ I 

< Q 

P3 - 

I ; 

o -5 



traditions of enamelling and chasing, and took pos- 
session of its own domain. There are still to be re- 
marked, of course, a certain timidity and a certain lack 
of experience in the handling of the tool, an execution 
at once summary and strangely careful, a mixture of 
naive intentions and conventional modes of expres- 
sion. But the burin, though only able as yet imper- 
fectly to treat lines in mass and vary the values of 
shadows, has mastered the secret of representing life 
with precision and elegance of outline, and can ren- 
der the facial expression of the most different types. 
Sacred and mythological personages, sybils and 
prophets, madonnas and the gods of Olympus, the 
men and women of the fifteenth century, all not 
only reveal at the first glance their close pictorial 
relationship to the general inclinations and habits 
of Florentine art of the fourteenth century, but show 
us these tendencies continued and confirmed in a fresh 
form. The delicacy which charms us in the bas- 
reliefs and the pictures of the time ; the aspiration, 
common to contemporary painters and sculptors, of 
idealising and heightening the expression of external 
facts ; the love of rare, exquisite, and somewhat subtle 
expression, are to be found in the works left by the 
painter-engravers who were the immediate followers 
of Finiguerra, no less clearly than in the painted 
and sculptured subjects on the walls of contemporary 
churches and palaces. 

Whatever we may suppose to have been the part 
due to Baccio Baldini, to Botticelli, to Pollajuolo, or 
to anybody else ; with whatever acuteness we may 


discern, or think we discern, the inequalities of style 
and the tricks of touch in different men ; all their 

Fig. 21. — I5ACCIO ijai.dini. 
Theseus and Ariadne. 

Fig. 22. — BACCio baldini. 
The Prophet Baruch. 

The Sibyl of Cumae, 


works display a vigorous unity, which must be care- 
fully taken into account, inasmuch as it gives its 
character to the school. Though we should even 
succeed in separately labelling with a proper name 
each one of the works which are all really dependent 
on one another, the gain would be small. 

Provided that neither the qualities nor the meaning 
of the whole movement be understood, we may, as 
regards the distribution of minor parts, resign our- 
selves to doubt, and even ignorance, and console 
ourselves for the mystery which enshrouds these 
nameless talents : and this the more readily that 
we can with greater impartiality appreciate their 
merits in the absence of biographical hypothesis and 
the commentaries of the scholar. 

The prints due to the Florentine painter-engravers 
who followed Finiguerra mark a transitional epoch 
between the first stage of Italian engraving and the 
time when the art, having entered upon its period of 
virility, used its powers with confidence, and showed 
itself equal to any feat. The privileges of fruitful - 
ness and success in this second phase no longer, 
it is true, belong wholly to Florence. It would 
seem that, after having again and again given 
birth to so much talent, Florentine art, exhausted 
by rapid production, reposed and voluntarily allowed 
the neighbouring schools to take her place. Even 
before the appearance of Marc Antonio, the most 
important proofs of skill were given outside of 
Tuscany; and if towards the beginning, or at the 
beginning, of the sixteenth century, the numerous 


plates engraved by Robetta still continued to sustain 
the reputation of the Florentine school, such a result 

Fig. 24.— print belonging to the set entitled "the game 


was owing far less to the individual talent of the 
engraver, than to the charm and intrinsic value of 
his models. 
F 2 



Of all the Italian engravers who, towards the end 
of the fifteenth century, completed the popularisation 
in their country of the art whose first secrets and 

The Virgin and the Infant Jesus. 

examples were revealed and supplied by Florence, 
the one most powerfully inspired and most skilful 
was certainly Andrea Mantegna. We need not here 

recall the true position of this great artist in the 

FlO. 26. — MANTEGNA. 
From the Print Representing a Battle of Sea-Gods. 

history of painting. Such of his pictures and decora- 
tive paintings as still exist possess a world-wide fame ; 


and, though his engravings are less generally known, 
they deserve equal celebrity, and would justify equal 

The engraved work of Mantegna consists of only 
twenty plates, about half of which are religious, and 
the remainder mythological or historical. Though 
none of these engravings bears the signature or 
initials of the Paduan master, their authenticity 
cannot be doubted. It is abundantly manifest in 
certain marked characteristics of style and workman- 
ship ; in the delicate yet strong precision of the draw- 
ing ; and in that somewhat rude elegance which 
was at the command of none of his contempora- 
ries in the same degree. Every part of them, even 
where they savour of imperfection or of extravagance, 
bears witness to the indomitable will and independent 
genius of a master. His touch imparts a passionate 
and thrilling aspect even to the details of architectural 
decoration and the smallest inanimate objects. One 
would suppose that, after having studied each part of 
his subject with the eye of a man of culture and a 
thinker, Mantegna, when he came to represent it on 
the metal, forgot all but the burning impatience of his 
hand and the fever of the struggle with his material. 

And yet the handling alone of such works as the 
" Entombment " and the " Triumph of Caesar " bears 
witness to the talent of an engraver already more ex- 
perienced than any of his Italian predecessors and 
more alive to the real resources of his art. The burin 
in Mantegna's hand displays a firmness that can no 
longer be called stiffness ; and, while it hardly as yet 



can be said to imitate painting, competes in boldness 
and rapidity at least with the effect of chalk or the 
pen. Unlike the Florentine engravers, with their 

Fig. 28. — mantegva. 
Jesus Christ, St. Andrew, and St. Longinus. 

timid sparse strokes which scarcely served to mark 
the outlines, Mantegna works with masses of shadow 
produced by means of closer graining, and seeks to 


express, or at any rate to suggest, internal modelling, 
instead of contenting himself with the mere outlines 
of the body. In a word, Mantegna as an engraver 

Fig. 29. — MANTEGNA. 
From the Triumph of Julixis Caesar. 

never forgot his knowledge as a painter ; and it is 
this, combined with the rare vigour of his imagina- 
tion, which assures him the first place amongst the 
Italian masters before the time of Marc Antonio. 


Mantegna had soon many imitators. Some of 
them, as Mocetto, Jacopo Francia, Nicoletto da 
Modena, and Jacopo de' Barbari, known as the Master 
of the Caduceus, though profiting by his example, did 
not push their docility so far as to sacrifice their own 
tastes and individual sentiment. Others, as Zoan 
Andrea and Giovanni Antonio da Brescia, whose 
work has been sometimes mistaken for that of 
Mantegna himself, set themselves not only to make 
his manner their own, but to imitate his engravings 
line for line. 

However strongly Mantegna's influence may have 
acted on the Italian engravers of the fifteenth century, 
or the early years of the sixteenth, it hardly seems to 
have extended beyond Lombardy, Venice, and the 
small neighbouring states. It was neither in Florence 
nor in Rome that the Paduan example principally ex- 
cited the spirit of imitation. The works it gave rise to 
belong nearly all of them to artists formed under the 
master's very eyes, or in close proximity to his teach- 
ings, whether the manner of the leader of the school 
appeared in the efforts of pure copyists and imitators 
more or less adroit, or whether it appeared in a much 
modified condition in the works of more independent 

It was in Verona, Venice, Modena, and Bologna 
that the movement which Mantegna started in art found 
its most brilliant continuation. As the engravers, em- 
boldened by experience, gradually tended to reconcile 
something of their own inspirations and personal desires 
with the doctrines transmitted to them, assuredly a 


certain amount of progress was manifested and some 
improvements were introduced into the use or the 

Fig. 30. — MOCETTo. 

combination of means ; but in spite of such par- 
tial divergences, the general appearance of the works 
proves their common origin, and testifies to the im- 


prudence of the efforts sometimes made to split into 
small isolated groups and infinite subdivisions what, 
in reality, forms a complete whole, a genuine school 

The same spirit of unity is again found to predomi- 
nate in all the works of the German engravers belong- 
ing to the second half of the fifteenth century. With 
respect to purpose and style, there is certainly a great 
difference between the early Italian engravings and 
those which mark the beginning of the art in the 
towns of High and Low Germany. But both have 
this in common : that certain fixed traditions once 
founded remain for a time almost unchangeable ; that 
certain fixed methods of execution are held like 
articles of faith, and only modified with an extreme 
respect for the time-honoured principles of early days. 
The Master of 1466, and shortly after him, Martin 
Schongauer, had scarcely shown themselves, before 
their example was followed, and their teaching obe- 
diently practised, by a greater number of disciples 
than had followed, or were destined to follow, in Italy 
the lead of the contemporaries of Finiguerra or Man- 
tegna. The influence exerted by the latter had at least 
an equivalent in the ascendancy of Martin Schon- 
gauer ; while the Master of 1466, in the character 
of a founder, which belongs to him, has almost the 
same importance in the history of German engraving 
as the Florentine goldsmith in that of Italian en- 

The Master of 1466 may, indeed, be regarded as 
the Finiguerra of Germany, because he was the first 
in his own country to raise to the dignity of an art 


what had been only an industrial process in the hands 
of talentless workmen. Like wood engraving, intaglio 


St. Sebastian. 

engraving, such as wc see it in German prints some 
years before the works of the Master of 1466, had only 



succeeded in spreading abroad, in the towns on the 
banks of the Rhine, productions of a rude or grotesque 
symbolism, in which, notwithstanding recent attempts 

to exaggerate their value, 
a want of technical ex- 
perience was as evident 
as extreme poverty of 
conception. These ar- 
chaeological curiosities 
can have no legitimate 
place amongst works of 
art, and we may without 
injustice take still less 
account of them, as the 
rapid progress made by 
the Master of 1466 
throws their inferiority 
into greater relief If the 
anonymous artist called 
the Master of 1466 be 
the true founder of the 
German school of en- 
graving ; if he show him- 
self cleverer than any 
of the Italian engravers 
of the period — from the 
point of view only of practical execution, and the 
right handling of the tool — it does not necessarily 
follow that he holds the same priority in talent as 
he certainly holds in order of time before all otheT 
engravers of the same age and country. One of 

The Virgin and the Infant Jesus. 


these, Martin Schongauer, called also "handsome 
Martin," or for short, " Martin Schon," may have a 
better right to the highest place. Endowed with 
more imagination than 
the Master of 1466, with 
a deeper feeling for truth 
and a clearer instinct 
for beauty, he displays 
at least equal dexterity 
in the conduct of the 
work and in the handling 
of the graver. Assuredly, 
if we compare Martin 
Schongauer's prints with 
the beautiful Flemish or 
French engravings of the 
seventeenth century, the 
combinations of lines 
which satisfied the Ger- 
man engraver cannot 
fail to appear insufficient, 
or even archaically sim- 
ple ; but if we compare 
them with the engraved 
work of all countries in 
the fifteenth century, it 
will be acknowledged 

that, even as a technical worker, the master of 
Colmar^ exhibited a striking superiority over all his 

Fig. 33.— martin schongauer. 
St. Jolin the Evangelist. 

* Martin Schongauer was horn at Cohnar, in which town his father 
had settled as a goldsmith ; there he passed the greatest part of his 

Jesus Betrayed by Judas. 

Fig. 35- --martin schongauer. 
The Entombment. 


contemporaries. Such plates as the " Flight into 
I^gypt," the "Death of the Virgin," the "Wise 
Virgins," and the " Foolish Virgins," are distin- 
guished above all by power and by grace of ex- 
pression ; but to these ideal qualities there is added 
so much firmness of drawing, and so much decision 
of handling, that, in spite of all subsequent progress, 
they deserve to be numbered with those which most 
honour the art of engraving. 

Martin Schongauer, like the Master of 1466, at 
once raised up both imitators and rivals in Munich, in 
Mecheln in Westphalia, in Nuremberg, and in many 
other towns in the German States. His influence 
and reputation extended even beyond the borders of 
Germany ; and it was not the artists of the Low Coun- 
tries alone who sought to profit by his example. In 
Florence young Michelangelo did not disdain to study, 
nor even to copy him, for he painted a " Temptation 
of St. Anthony," after Schongauer's engraving. Italian 
miniature painters and engravers, Gherardo and Nico- 
letto da Modena, amongst others, reproduced many 
of his prints. The very figures and ornamentation 
which decorate the " Books of Hours," published by 
Simon Vostre and Hardouin at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, show that in the France of that 
period a zeal for imitation of the master's manner was 

life, and there he died in 1488. Vasari sometimes speaks of him as 
"'Antwerp Martin," or "Martin the Fleming." This is easily ex- 
plained : a German or Flemish artist would be all one in the eyes of a 
Tuscan of the fifteenth century, as strangers were all barbarians to 
the ancient Romans. 


not always restrained by the fear of actual plagiarism, 

Fig. 36.— martin schongauer. 
Figure from the set entitled "The Foolish Virgins." 

But Ihc influence of Martin Schongauer on the 

G 2 



progress of art and the talent of artists was more 
extended and decided in Germany itself. Amongst 
those who most obediently submitted to, and who 

A\ xt~S 

Fig. ^y. — martin sciiONGAUiiR. 
St. Anthony. 

best knew how to profit by, that example, we 
need only mention Bartholomew Schon, Franz von 
Bochok, Wenceslas of Olmiitz, Israel van Mechenen, 


Glockenton, and lastly, the engraver with the mono- 
gram " B M," whose most important work, the " Judg- 
ment of Solomon," was perhaps engraved from a 
picture by Martin Schongauer, who like Mantegna, 
like PoUajuolo, and indeed like the majority of early 
engravers, was not only a painter, but a singularly 
good one. His painted pictures still belonging to 
the town of Colmar, and, setting aside his rare 
talent as an engraver, even the little " Death of the 
Virgin," which has been the property of the London 
National Gallery since i860, would be enough to 
establish his reputation.^ 

The importance of such an artist is in every respect 
that of the leader of a school and a master in the 
strictest acceptation of the word. Martin Schon- 
gauer in his own person, and through the talent 
he helped to foster, did so much, and so greatly 
honoured his country, that it is only just to regard 
him as one of the most glorious representatives of 
national art, and to place his name beside those of 
Albert Diirer and Holbein, as the three men in whom 
the essential qualities and characteristics of the German 
genius have been most typically represented. 

* This is by no means universally admitted to be a genuine work 
by Martin Schonguier. 




Thanks to the Master of 1466 and to Martin Schon- 
gauer, line engraving in Germany was marked by- 
brilliant and unexpected advances, whilst wood en- 
graving merely followed the humble traditions of early 
days. It is true that the latter process was no longer 
exclusively applied to the production of occasional 
unbound prints, or cheap religious pictures on loose 
leaves, of which we have a specimen in the " Saint 
Christopher" of 1423. In Germany, towards the end 
of the fifteenth century, the custom had spread of 
"illustrating" (as we now call it) type-printed books 
with wood engravings. To mention a few amongst 
many examples, we have the " Casket of the True 
Riches of Salvation " (" Schatzbehalter "), published 
at Nuremberg in 1491, and the " Chronicorum Liber" 
called the " Nuremberg Chronicle,^' printed in the 
same town in 1493, both of which contain numerous 
wood-cuts interpolated in the text. 

These cuts are not so bad as the earlier German 
work in the same process, yet they are far from 


good. They scarcely hold out a promise of the 
advance in skill made some years later by wood- 
cutters under the influence of Albert Diirer, and if 
they are compared with the illustrations which adorn 
Italian books of the same period — the " Decameron " 
of 1492, for instance, and especially the " Hypneroto- 
machia Poliphili " of 1499 — they appear still worse. 
Though they are not of much value in themselves, 
the prints which accompany the writings in the 
" Casket " and the " Nuremberg Chronicle " deserve 
attention. They were done from designs supplied 
by Albert Diirer's master, Michael VVolgemut ; and 
the gulf between the rather feeble talent of the older 
man, and the profound knowledge and powerful ori- 
ginality of his illustrious pupil, can thus be easily 

Albert Diirer was the son of a Hungarian gold- 
smith established at Nuremberg. He tells us himself 
how, at the age of fifteen, he left his father's shop 
for Wolgemut's studio: not that he wished to free 
himself from parental authority, but simply to hasten 
the time when he might do his share towards satisfy- 
ing the wants of a numerous family. " My father," 
says Albert Diirer, in his autobiographical notes, 
'could only supply himself, his wife, and children* 
with the strict necessaries of life ; and spent hi.s 
life in great hardship and severe hard work. He 
suffered in addition many adversities and troubles. 

♦ He had no fewer than eighteen children ; Albert was the 


Every one who knew him spoke well of him, for he 
led a worthy Christian life, was patient and gentle, 
at peace with every one, and always thankful to God. 
He did not seek worldly pleasures, was a man of 
few words, kept little company, and feared God. 
My dear father was very earnest about bringing up 
his children in the fear of God, for it was his greatest 
desire to lead them aright, so that they might be 
pleasing to God and man. And his daily injunc- 
tion to us was that we should love God, and deal 
uprightly with our neighbour. ... I felt at length 
more like an artist than a goldsmith, and I begged 
my father to let me paint ; but he was displeased 
with the request, for he regretted the time I had 
lost in learning his trade. However, he gave in to 
me, and on St. Andrew's Day, i486, he apprenticed 
me to Master Michael." 

Albert Dlirer's progress was indeed rapid, at least 
his progress in engraving, for he drew with remarkable 
talent before he entered Wolgemut's studio. The 
charming portrait of himself at the age of thirteen, 
still preserved at Vienna in the Albertine Collection, 
sufficiently proves that he required no lessons from 
his new master in the skilful handling of a pencil : 
the teaching of his own mind had been enough. But 
it was otherwise with engraving, where he had to 
advance by way of experiment, and gain capacity 
from practice. And it was not till about 1496, 
after many years of apprenticeship, that he ven- 
tured to publish his first engraved work. His early 
works, moreover, are very probably only copies from 


Wolgemut,"*^ whereas the original works which fol- 
lowed, though retaining something of the traditional 
manner, bear nevertheless a stamp of independent 
feeling. Thus too, and at nearly the same time, the 
genius of Perugino's gifted pupil began to show itself 
under the borrowed forms of the only style permitted 
in the school ; and the obedient hand which por- 
trayed the " Sposalizio " in the manner and under the 
eyes of his master, in secret already obeyed the mind 
of Raphael. 

Meanwhile Albert Diirer, whose fame had begun 
to spread beyond the walls of Nuremberg, undertook a 
tour through Germany, and was absent for four years ; 
and when he returned to settle in his native town, he 
married Agnes Frey, the daughter of a respectable 
and wealthy merchant in Nuremberg. If we may be- 
lieve report, the union was unhappy, and darkened 
and shortened by cruel domestic troubles the life of 
the noble artist. The story has often been told how 
his imperious and greedy wife kept him continually 
at work, and how, as prints paid better than pictures, 
she would not allow him to sacrifice the burin to the 
brush. Dreading the reproaches and accusations of 
idleness to which she gave vent on the smallest pro- 
vocation, Diirer bent beneath the yoke and rarely 
left his studio. One day, for instance, they relate that 
he was discovered in the street by his wife, whom he 
believed to be at the other end of the town, and was 

* Herr Moriz Thausing has treated this question exhaustively in 
his important work on Albert Diirer. 


forced to return and to expiate his momentary idleness 
by working far beyond his usual time. The poor 
artist died at last of overwork and misery ; and his 
hateful widow only regretted his death because it set a 
term to his earnings. 

Such is the account in all the books that deal with 
Durer, from the work of the German Sandrart, in the 
seventeenth century, down to the biographical dic- 
tionaries published in our own time by French 
writers ; such is the story which has served as text 
to so many denunciations of this new Xantippc, 
and to so many elegies upon her victim. But the 
facts of the case were not carefully examined. The 
result of Herr Thausing's scrupulous investigation 
of the subject, and the authentic testimony he has 
adduced, show, on the contrary, that Albert Durer 
and his wife lived on pretty good terms till his 
death ; so that we may banish as idle fables the 
torments which he was supposed to have sufferecf, 
and the sorrows that were said to have shortened 
his life. 

The story so frequently repeated after Vasari, 
of Durer's quarrels with a certain forger of his works 
at Venice, where copies signed with his mono- 
gram were publicly sold as originals, rests on a 
surer basis. The said forger was a young man 
of, no reputation who had conceived this idea of 
commanding a sale for his works, and of thus 
quickly realising a profit on the renown of Diirer 
and the simplicity of his customers. It was not 
long, however, before the fraud was discovered, 


when he tried, it is said, to turn it into a joke; 
but the German artist could not be brought to 
see it in that h'ght. It was a case in which his 
wife was not concerned, and he could take his own 
part openly. He applied at once to the Senate, 
denounced the fraud, and obtained a decree con- 
demning the offender thenceforth to affix to his plates 
no other name than his own. This name, destined 
to become celebrated, was no other than that of 
Marc Antonio Raimondi. 

In our own days the truth of this story has been 
more than once doubted, at least in so far as the 
legal consequences are concerned, for the forgery 
itself cannot be denied. The plates of the " Life of 
the Virgin," engraved by Marc Antonio from Albert 
Diirer, and bearing the monogram of the latter, are 
known to every one ; but it has been objected as an 
argument against the sentence that, in the state of 
morals and legislation in the sixteenth century, to 
affix another person's signature to these plates did not 
constitute a misdemeanour ; and that Marc Antonio, 
by appropriating the name and the works of Albert 
Diirer, did no worse than many im.itators of Martin 
Schongauer had done before him, no worse, indeed, 
than was presently to be done with regard to his 
own works by imitators as unscrupulous as himself 
This is quite true ; but it is no less so that Albert 
Diircr's signature, so deliberately added by Marc 
Antonio to the copies he engraved of the " Life of 
the Virgin," is not to be found on the plates of the 
** History of the Passion," engraved later on by Marc 


Antonio in imitation of the German master. It is 
impossible not to suppose that in the meantime a 
judgment of some sort was passed, obliging the 
copyist to appear under his true colours. 

The just satisfaction accorded to the demands of 
Albert Diirer was not, however, to preserve him from 
the injury afterwards done him by imitators of another 
kind. Some Venetian painters followed the example 
of Marc Antonio, and, adding insult to injury, ener- 
getically abused the very man whose works they 
impudently copied. " If you saw these men," wrote 
Diirer to his friend Pirkheimer, "you would take 
them for the best people in the world. For my 
part, I can never help laughing at them when they 
speak to me. They are quite aware that one knows 
all about their knavery ; but they don't care. You 
may be sure I was warned in time not to eat and 
drink with them. There are painters in Venice who 
copy my works, , clamouring loudly the while that I 
am ruining art by departing from the antique." 

Albert Diirer, however, found in the welcome he 
received from the most celebrated Italian artists a 
compensation for the bad conduct to which he was a 
victim. Old Giovanni Bellini himself overwhelmed 
his young rival with praise, and begged for one of his 
works, for which he declared himself " eager to pay 
well." Lastly, when Diirer was once more in his own 
country, and might have considered himself forgotten 
by the Italian painters, Raphael, the greatest of all, 
sent him as a token of his admiration some proofs 
of plates that Marc Antonio had just engraved under 



his own eye. What happened at Venice was nearly 
happening at Nuremberg. The German engraver 
did not dream of copying the works of his old 
imitator as a sort of qtiid pro quo ; but, as he really 
appreciated them at their true value, he did not 
hesitate to show them to his pupils, and to recommend 
them to their imitation. Aldegrever, Hans Schali- 
flein, Baldung Grlin, Hans Sebald Beham, indeed, the 

The Jester and the I^overs. 

greater part of the so-called "Little Masters," who 
were destined all their lives to remain faithful to tra- 
dition, were content to admire without any thought 
of imitation ; but those who were younger and less 
fixed simply took Albert Diirer at his word. Perhaps 
he scarcely welcomed such excessive docility. But 
their master having thus almost acknowledged a 
superior, these young men hurriedly left him to put 
themselves under the guidance of the conqueror. The 
deserters were numerous. Georg Pencz, Bartholo- 
mew Beham, and Jacob Binck, who had been the 
first to cross the Alps, succeeded in copying Marc 



Antonio well enough to cause several of the subjects 
they engraved to be mistaken for his own. When 
in their turn, and in Rome itself, they had edu- 
cated German pupils, these latter returned to their 
own country to finish the revolution already begun, 
by spreading still further the 
taste for the Italian manner ; so 
that the school of Diirer, the 
only one known in Germany 
some years before, was, after the 
second generation, almost en- 
tirely absorbed in that of the 

The engravings of Albert 
Diirer, even those produced in 
the full force of his talents, for 
a long time obtained but little 
favour in France and England. 
They now possess zealous ad- 
mirers, and modern painting now 
and then shows signs of being 
affected by this enthusiasm; it is in the new Ger- 
man school, of which Cornelius and Kaulbach were 
the chiefs, that the Nuremberg master seems to have 
exerted the most important influence, and one which 
is, even in some respects, to be regretted. It would, 
however, be unjust to Diirer to saddle him with the 
burden of errors of which he was but the involuntary 
cause. However exaggerated may have been the 
reaction produced by his followers three centuries 
after his death, considered separately and apart from 

Fig 39. 

hans sebald beham. 

The Three Soldiers. 

• AETArissVAE ANNO L iii- 

Willibald Pirkheimer, 


them, he remains, nevertheless, an eminent artist and 
the greatest of all his countrymen. Vasari considers 
that, as a painter and sculptor, " he would have 
equalled the great masters of Italy, if he had been 
born in Tuscany, and if the study of the antique had 
helped him to impart to his figures as much beauty 
and elegance as they have truth and delicacy ; " as 
a mathematician he ranked among the first of his 
time in Germany ; as an engraver — and it is as such 
only that we can look upon him here — he enor- 
mously advanced the progress of the art. No one 
before him ever handled the burin with the same 
skill and vigour ; no one ever cut outlines on the 
metal with such absolute certainty, or so carefully 
reproduced every detail of modelling. 

The qualities which distinguished his talent and 
manner are found to nearly the same extent in all his 
work. As examples, however, peculiarly expressive 
of his delicate yet powerful talent, we may mention 
the hunting "St. Hubert" — or, more probably, St. 
Eustace — kneeling before a stag with a miraculous 
crucifix on its head, the " St. Jerome in his Cell," the 
print called the " Knight and Death," and lastly the 
subject known as " Melancholia," which should rather 
be called " Reflection," but reflection in its gravest, 
darkest, one might almost say its most despairing, 
attitude. This piece, which even Vasari allows to 
be "incomparable," represents a woman seated, her 
head resting on one hand, whilst she holds in the 
other a compass with which she is trifling mechani- 
cally. As though to suggest the limitations and 



nothingness of human knowledge, an hour-glass and 
various scientific instruments are scattered about ; 
whilst in the middle distance a child, doubtless an 
image of youthful illusions, is attentively writing, 

f SOT Alii 

Fig. 41.— albert dUrer. 
The Holy Face. 

and contrasts in its serenity with the troubled coun- 
tenance and despairing attitude of the principal figure. 
Had Durer only engraved this, one extraordinary 
plate, had he only produced this one work, as strik- 
ingly original in execution as in intention, it would 



be enough to mark his position for ever in the history 

Fig. 42.— albert durer. 
The Standard Bearer. 

of art, and to commend him to everlasting honour. 


But there are many other works from the same 

Fig. 43. — ALBERT DURER. 
The Ride. 

hand which might be also mentioned to confirm or to 
H 2 



increase our admiration. There are many, besides the 
" Melancholia," where the almost savage energy of the 
style is allied to an extraordinary manipulative deli- 
cacy in the expression of details. Sometimes, indeed, 
his energy degenerates into violence and his pre- 
cision into dryness ; sometimes — as a rule, in fact — the 

general effect is impaired by 
a too detailed insistence on 
subordinate forms, while the 
beauty of these forms is at 
least affected by the minute 
care with which they have 
be^n separately studied and 
expressed. But these im- 
perfections, or, if you like, 
these faults, may be attri- 
buted in part to the tenden- 
cies and prejudices of the 
period, and in part to that 
national taste for excessive 
analysis which has been a characteristic of the German 
mind in every age. That DUrer's merits, on the other 
hand, are entirely his own, may easily be seen by 
comparing his works not only with those of former 
engravers, but with those of foreign contemporary 
masters. Neither in Italy, nor anywhere else, is it 
possible to find in the sixteenth century an en- 
graver of such original inspiration and possessing so 
much knowledge and technical skill. Even Marc 
Antonio, superior though he may be in sentiment and 
majesty of style, cannot dispossess Diirer of his lawful 

Fig. 44. — ALBERT DURER. 

The Pommel of Maximilian's 

Fig. 45. — MARC ANTONIO. 
Lucretia. After Raphael. 


renown, nor take from his art its peculiar virtue and 

Marc Antonio Raimondi was born at Bologna, 
where he studied in the school of the painter-gold- 
smith Francesco Francia, and was still only an un- 
known worker in niello, and the author of some 
rather indifferent plates engraved from his own or his 
master's designs,"^ when a journey to Venice and the 
careful study of Albert Diirer's engravings showed 
him the inmost possibilities of an art of which he had 
till then known little more than the mere mechanical 
processes. Unfortunately, as we have seen, the young 
engraver was not content with copying these, the best 
models of the day, for his own improvement, but, to 
secure a double profit, pushed his imitation a step 
further, and copied the signature with as much care 
as the style. 

Some years later he went to Rome, where Raphael, 
on the recommendation of Giulio Romano, allowed 
him to engrave one of his own designs, the " Lucretia." 
Other originals from Raphael's pencil were afterwards 
reproduced by Marc Antorrio with so much success 
that these fac-similes of the ideas of the "divine 
Master " were soon in everybody's hands, and the best 
judges, even Raphael himself, were fully satisfied. 

The nobility of feeling, and the purity of taste and 
execution, which shine in these now classic plates 

* The oldest known dated engraving by Marc Antonio, the '* Pyra- 
mus and Thisbe," bears the date of 1505. If Marc Antonio, as we 
have reason to think, was born about 1480, he must have been already 
over twenty when he published this extremely commonplace print. 



have never been surpassed. These are the qualities, 
and these only, which we must look for and admire 

Fig. 46.— marc antonio. 
Poetry. After Raphael. 

unreservedly ; to seek for more, as to regret its absence, 
would be superfluous. To complain of the absence 
of colour and of aerial perspective would be as unjust 


as to expect from Rembrandt the style and types of 
the Italian school. Rembrandt's prints are impreg- 
nated with poetry in their tone and in the harmony 
of their effects ; those of Marc Antonio are models 
of beauty, as regards line and dignity of form. The 
two great masters of Bologna and of Leyden, so op- 
posed to each other in the nature of their aspirations 
and the choice of their methods, have yet, each in 
his own way, proved their case and carried their 
point; and to each must be allotted his own peculiar 
share of glory. 

It would be idle to point out with regret, as some 
have done, what is lacking in the masterpieces of 
Marc Antonio, or to say that greater freedom in 
rendering colour or in managing light and shade 
would have lent them an additional charm. ^ Such 
qualities should be looked for elsewhere than in 
subjects engraved — not, it must be remembered, 
from pictures — but from pen or chalk drawings. 
In sixteenth century Italy they could scarcely come 
from the burin of one of Raphael's pupils : an 
epic burin, so to speak, and one contemptuous of 
qualities then considered of secondary importance. 
Moreover, the hand of him who held it was bold 
rather than skilful, vigorous rather than patient. To 
model a body in shadow, he employed unevenly 

* Michael Iluber (*' Manuel des Curieux et des Amateurs de I'Art," 
t. iii.) says, word for word : "All that is wanted in these piints is a richer 
handling and that general aspect which we admire in the subjects en- 
graved from Rubens." One might as well say that Petrarch's style 
would be improved by being Ariosto^-. 



crossed or almost parallel hatchings, drawn at different 
widths apart, and in subordination to the larger feeling 
of the form and movement he wished to express. 
Then lighter strokes led up 
to the half-light, and a few 
dots at unequal distances 
bordered on the light. 

What could be simpler 
than such a method ? Yet 
what more exact in its re- 
sults, and what more ex- 
pressive in drawing ? The 
exact crossing of lines 
mattered little to Marc 
Antonio. What he was 
taken up with and wanted 
to make visible was neither 
the manner nor the choice 
of workmanship : that 
might be simple indeed, 
and he was satisfied if 
only the beauty of a head 
or the general aspect of 
a figure were striking at 
a first glance, if only the 
appearance of the whole 

was largely rendered and well defined. Sometimes 
one outline is corrected by a second, and these altera- 
tions, all the more interesting as wc may suspect that 
they were ordered by Raphael himself, prove both the 
engraver's passion for correct drawing and his small 


Fig. 47.- 

After Riiphacl. 


regard for mere niceties of craftsmanship. The time 
was yet distant when, in this same Italy, the trifling 
search after common technicaHties should take the 
place of such wise views ; when men should set to 
work to reproduce the shadows of a face or a piece of 
drapery by lozenges -containing a semicircle, a little 
cross, or even something resembling a young serpent ; 
when engravers like Morghen and his followers should 
see, in the reproduction of masterpieces of the brush, 
only an opportunity for assembling groups of more 
or less complicated lines and parading their dexterity, 
and should gain by these tricks the applause of all 
men and the name of artists. 

The school founded by Marc Antonio soon became 
the most numerous and active of all. We have seen 
that the Germans themselves crowded to Rome, and 
surrounded the master who had caused them to forget 
Albert Diirer. Engravers came to learn or to perfect 
their knowledge in the same school from every part 
of Italy. There were Marco da Ravenna, Agostino 
Veniziano, Giovanni Caraglio da Verona, II Vecchio 
da Parma, and Bonasone da Bologna. Some years 
later came the family of the Mantovani, a member 
of which, Diana Scultori, more often called Diana 
Ghisi, presented perhaps the first example, so com- 
mon afterwards, of a female engraver. Many others, 
whose names and works have remained more or 
less celebrated, descend from Marc Antonio, whether 
they received his teaching directly or through his 

He, whilst so much talent was being developed 

under his influence, continued the kind of work in 

Fig. 48. — MARC ANTONIO. 

Portrait of Raphael. 

which he had excelled from the beginning of his stay in 


Rome, confining himself to the engraving of Raphael's 
compositions : that is, as we have already said, of hfs 
drawings. It is this which explains the difference, 
at first sight incomprehensible, between certaih prints 
by Marc Antonio and the same subjects as painted by 
Raphael. The painter often submitted to the engraver 
pen or pencil sketches of subjects which he afterwards 
altered with his brush when transferring them to 
walls or panels : the " St. Cecilia," the " Parnassus," 
the "Poetry," for instance, which are so unlike in 
the copy and in what wrongly appears to have been 
the original. Raphael often drew specially for en- 
graving : as in the " Massacre of the Innocents," the 
''Judgment of Paris,'" the " Plague of Phrygia," &c. ; 
but in either case Marc Antonio had but to find the 
means of faithfully rendering given forms with the 
graver, without troubling himself about those diffi- 
culties which the luminous or delicate qualities of 
colour would certainly have introduced. 

Raphael's death, however, deprived the engraver 
of an influence which, to the great advantage of 
his talent, he had obeyed submissively for ten years. 
Marc Antonio would not continue to work from the 
drawings of the master who could no longer super- 
intend him; but he still continued to honour him 
in the person of his favourite pupil, Giulio Romano, 
to whom he attached himself, and whose works he 
reproduced almost exclusively. 

The connection of the two artists resulted in the 
publication of some fine engravings, amongst others 
the " Hercules and Antaeus," but it unfortunately 



terminated in a disgraceful business. Giulio Romano, 
following the dissolute manners of the day, rather than 
the example and traditions of the noble leader of the 
school, stooped to design a series of boldly licentious 

Fig. 49. — MARC ANTONIO. 

The Three Doctors. 

subjects. Marc Antonio consented to engrave them, 
and Pietro Aretino helped still further to degrade the 
undertaking by composing an explanatory sonnet to 
be printed opposite to each plate. The result was a 
book whose title is still infamous. In publishing it 


the two artists took care not to sign their names. 
They were, however, discovered by the boldness of the 
style and the firmness of the line ; for, surprising as it 
may seem, neither took the trouble to alter his usual 
manner : they merely profaned it. Here, assuredly, 
their wonted dignity of form and energy of workman- 
ship appear somewhat incongruous qualities.^ The 
culprits were soon discovered; and Clement VII. 
issued a warrant to pursue them, ordering, at the 
same time, that every copy of the work should be 
destroyed. Aretino fled to Venice, Giulio Romano 
to Mantua, and the only sufferer was the engraver. 
He was imprisoned for several months, and only 
set at liberty, thanks to frequent requests made by 
Giulio de' Medici and the sculptor Baccio Ban- 
dinelli, from whose original, to prove his grati- 
tude, he executed the beautiful " Martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence," one of the masterpieces of Italian en- 

The rest of Marc Antonio's life is only imperfectly 
known. It is said that he was wounded and left for 
dead in the streets when Rome was sacked by the 
Spanish under the Constable de Bourbon ; that he 

* Agostino Caracci, who deserves to be numbered amongst the 
cleverest engravers of the end of the sixteenth century, did not blush to 
devote his talents to a similar publication, serious in style, but of most 
obscene intention. The Bolognese artist, like his celebrated country- 
man, seems to have wished to display at once his science and his 
shamelessness. The one only serves to make the other more inexcusable, 
and it is even still more difficult to tolerate this austere immodesty than 
the licentiousness, without aesthetic pretension, which characterises the 
little French prints sold under the rose in the eighteenth century. 


was then taken prisoner, and only recovered his liberty 
at the cost of a ransom large enough to ruin him ; 
and that he then took refuge at Bologna, where it 
would appear he soon afterwards died : not, as has 
been alleged, murdered by the lawful possessor of one 
of his plates, which he had himself forged, but, so says 
Vasari, " nearly reduced to beggary " (" poco meno che 
mendico"), and at any rate completely forgotten. 

Marc Antonio's death did not bring with it the 
ruin of line engraving in Italy. The numerous pupils 
he had educated, and in turn the pupils of these, 
handed down to the beginning of the seventeenth 
century the master's manner, and propagated his doc- 
trines in neighbouring countries. We have spoken 
of the revolution which their works produced in 
German art ; we shall presently see French art sub- 
mitting in its turn to Italian influences. Meanwhile, 
and even during Marc Antonio's life, a particular sort 
of engraving was making rapid progress in Italy. 
It consisted in the employment of a process, popu- 
larised by Ugo da Carpi, for obtaining from several 
wooden blocks proofs of engravings in camaieu : that 
is, as we explained at the beginning of this book, 
proofs in two, three, or four tones, offering almost 
the same appearance as drawings washed in with 
water-colour : a process which Ugo did not really 
invent, but only improved from the first attempts 
made at Augsburg in 1510 by Jobst Necker, which 
were destined to be still further improved by Nicolo 
Vicentino, Andrea Andreani, Antonio da Trento, 
and many others. 


A great number of pieces, executed in the same 
manner from Raphael and Parmigiano, prove the 
skill of Ugo da Carpi, who unfortunately took it into 
his head to introduce into painting even more radical 
changes than those he had first promoted in engrav- 
ing. He conceived the strange idea of painting a 
whole picture with his finger, without once having 
recourse to a brush, and, the proceeding appearing 
to him praiseworthy, he perpetuated the recollec- 
tion of it in a few proud words at the bottom of 
the canvas. Michelangelo, to whom the picture was 
shown as a remarkable curiosity, merely said that 
" the only remarkable thing about it was the folly of 
the author." What would he have thought of Luca 
Cambiaso, the Genoese, whose talent consisted in 
painting with both hands at once ? 

The practice of engraving in camai'eu was not con- 
tinued in Italy and Germany beyond the last years 
of the sixteenth century. Even before then wood en- 
graving, properly so called, had reached a stage of 
considerable importance in both countries.; and it had 
distinguished itself by decided enough progress to 
cause engraving in camaieu to lose much of the favour 
with which at first it was welcomed. 

We said at the beginning of this chapter that a 
real regeneration in wood engraving took place in 
Germany under the influence of Albert Dlirer. We 
have plates from the drawings of the master, engraved, 
if not entirely by himself, at any rate to a certain 
extent with his practical co-operation ; we have others 
' — for instance, the " Life of the Virgin " and the 


" Passion," to which we have referred in speaking of 
Marc Antonio's copies of them with the burin. But, 
in addition to these, we have a number of wood en- 
gravings, earher than the second half of the sixteenth 
century, which prove the progress made in the art at 
this time in Germany, and the ability with which 
it was practised by the successors of Wolgemut. 
Wood engraving was no longer, as in the time of 
Wolgemut, a mere mode of linear imitation, and 
only fit to represent form by outlines ; it was now- 
capable of suggesting modelling and effect, not of 
course with that finished delicacy and freedom which 
can only be produced in true line engraving, but with 
an energetic exactness quite in accordance with the 
special conditions and resources of the process. The 
" Triumphal Arch of the Emperor Maximilian," by 
Hans Burgkmair and to some extent by Albert Diirer ; 
the " Theuerdannck," an allegorical history of the same 
prince by Hans Schaiifflein ; the " Passion of Jesus 
Christ;" and the"Illustrium Ducum Saxoniae Effigies," 
by Lucas Cranach, as well as many other collections 
published at Nuremberg, Augsburg, Weimar, or Wit- 
tenberg, deserve mention as remarkable examples of 
the peculiar skill of the German artists of the time. 
Indeed, when, a little later, the " Dance of Death," 
by Lutzelburger, from Holbein, made its appearance, 
this masterpiece in wood engraving closed the period 
of progress which had gone on in Germany from the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, and marked in its 
general history the time when the art itself had told 
its last secret, and attained perfection. 



Whilst this regeneration in wood engraving was 
being accomplished in Germany, the art continued to 
be practised in Italy, and especially in Venice, with 
a feeling for composition, and that delicate reticence 
of handling, of which the cuts in the " Hypneroto- 


The Miser. After Holbein. 

machia Poliphili," published before the end of the 
fifteenth century (1499), and in other books printed 
lome years later, are such striking examples. The 
Italian wood engravers of the sixteenth century, 
however, did net limit themselves so entirely to the 
national traditions as to stifle altogether any attempt 



at innovation. They had already tried to enliven 
even the execution of the illustrations intended to ac- 
company letterpress by more decided suggestions of 
light and shade and general effect. This is the reason 

The Rich Sinner. After Holbein. 

of the successful first appearance, and the present 
value, of so many beautiful volumes from the print- 
ing presses of Marcolini da Forli, Giolito da Ferrari 
and other printers established at Venice. 

Little by little, however, the domain of wood 
engraving vvidencd, or rather the object which wood 
I 2 


engravers set themselves to attain was changed. In- 
stead of confining themselves, as in the past, to the 
part of commentators of authors and illustrators of 
books, they set to work, like the line engravers, to 
publish, in larger dimensions than the size of a book, 
prints reproducing separate drawings and sometimes 
even pictures. The works of Titian specially served 
as models to skilful wood engravers, some of whom, 
Domenico delle Greche and Nicolo Boldrini amongst 
others, are said to have worked in the studio, even 
under the master's own eye. According to the care- 
ful testimony of Ridolphi, confirmed by Mariette, 
Titian gave more than mere advice. He seems, more 
than once, to have sketched with his own hand on 
the wood the designs to be reproduced by the wood 
engravers ; and amongst the prints thus begun by 
him, several " Virgins " in landscapes and a " Triumph 
of Christ" may be mentioned: the last "a work," 
says Mariette, " drawn with fine taste, in which the 
hatchings forming the outlines and shadows .... 
produce a softness and mellowness understood by 
Titian alone." 

However brief the preceding observations on the 
progress of engraving in the sixteenth century in Ger- 
many and Italy may appear,- they will perhaps be 
sufficient to indicate the reciprocal influence then 
exercised by the engravers of both countries. With- 
out ceasing to be Italian in their real preferences, 
their tastes, and their innate love of majesty of style, 
Marc Antonio and his disciples understood how to 
improve their practical execution by Albert Durer's 


example, exactly as Dlirer's pupils and their followers, 
while continuing to be German as it were in spite of 
themselves, tried to become Italianised as best they 

But it is time to speak of the school of the Low 
Countries, which appeared to stand aloof, as much 
from the progress in Germany initiated by Martin 
Schongauer and Albert Diirer, as from the more 
recent advance in Italy. Apparently unaffected by 
external influences, it was content to rely on its own 
powers, and to make use of its own resources, whilst 
awaiting the time, now close at hand, when it should 
in its turn supply example and teaching to those who 
had till then believed themselves to be the teachers. 




The history of engraving in the Low Countries really 
dates but from the early years of the sixteenth 
century : that is, from the appearance of the prints 
of Lucas van Leyden (1494 — 1533). Before that 
time certain line engravers, such as the so-called 
Maitre anx Banderoles^ the " Master of the Streamers," 
and those other anonymous artists of the fifteenth 
century who composed the group called " the Dutch 
primitives," had attempted to widen the domain 
of the art, till then confined to the wood-cutters 
who were the contemporaries or successors of the 
xylographists of the " Speculum Salvationis " and the 
" Biblia Pauperum." But, whilst the German and 
Italian engravers were distinguishing themselves by 
the brilliancy of their achievement, their contempora- 
ries in the Low Countries were producing works little 
fitted to compete with those of the foreign masters. 
They only succeeded in showing themselves more or 
less able artisans. Lucas van Leyden was the first 
to use the burin artistically, or at least to handle it 
with a boldness and knowledge never foreshadowed 
in the timid essays of his predecessors. 



While still a child Lucas van Leyden had already 
attracted the attention of his countrymen by his talent 

Hercules and Omphale. 

as a painter, and his sketch in distemper, the " Story of 
St Hubert " — done, it is alleged, at the age of twelve — 
placed him at once amongst artists of repute. Some 


years later the publication of his prints brought him to 
the first rank. He maintained his place till the end 
of his life ; and if, after his death, the Dutch and 
Flemish engravers still further perfected the art he 
had practised, they did but follow in his footsteps and 
draw more abundantly from the source he had dis- 

The principal feature of the works of Lucas van 
Leyden, and in general of all those belonging to his 
school, is a keen feeling for the phenomena of light. 
Albert Dlirer, and even Marc Antonio, despised or 
misunderstood this essential quality of art. In their 
works there is hardly any gradation of tone to suggest 
atmospheric distance, and we might mention engrav- 
ings of theirs where objects consigned to the back- 
ground are almost as distinct as those in the fore- 
ground. It was Lucas van Leyden who conceived 
the idea of perceptibly diminishing the values accord- 
ing to their distance, of giving to the shadows more 
or less of transparency or depths as the case might be, 
and of endowing the lights and half-lights with rela- 
tively greater force or delicacy. Reasoning so valid — 
based as it was on the real appearances of nature — was 
the principal cause of the young Dutch master's suc- 
cess. In his numerous engravings, however, qualities 
of another order are added to the merit of this inno- 
vation. The variety of facial expression, the truth of 
attitude and gesture, are no less remarkable than the 
harmony of effect, and the attempts at what we may 
venture to call naturalistic colour. 

Considered only from the point of view of execution, 

in a horizontal or oblique direction ; and thus, in- 


The Visitation. 

stead of a dry definition of outline, he renders with 


deliberate hesitation that floating quaHty which is to 
be observed in nature. 

Lucas van Leyden was the first amongst engravers 
who took into account with any measure of success 
the assumed distances of his models, in order to 
organise in their representation a varying value of 
tones and a general gradation of force. This important 
change he introduced from the beginning : that is to 
say, from 1508, the year of his first dated print, "The 
Monk Sergius Killed by Mahomet" (which, by the 
way, might be more appropriately entitled " Mahomet 
before the Body of a Hermit Murdered by One of his 
Servants")."^ Here, as in the master's other prints, the 
backgrounds are treated with so light a touch that 
their distance can be felt ; the handling becomes less 
energetic, the burin ploughs the copper less heavily, 
as the objects recede from the front of the composi- 
tion. Moreover, every subordinate form is observed 
and rendered with singular delicacy ; every face and 
every detail of drapery bear testimony, by the way 
they are engraved, to the clear insight of the artist and 
his extraordinary skill of hand. His work is strictly 
realistic, his style precise and clear rather than loftily 
inspired ; and we look almost in vain to him for taste, 
properly so called, the feeling for the beautiful, in fact, 
the understanding of the ideal conditions of art 

This it is which constitutes the principal difference, 
and clearly marks the distance, between the talent of 
Lucas van Leyden and that of Mantegna, of Marc 

♦ Passavant : " Le Peintre-Graveur," iii, 5. 



traditions of Italian art and the principles which have 
governed it, from Giotto down to Raphael ? What less 


Fig. 56. — LUCAS van levdex. 
Portrait of the Emperor Maximilian I. 


unusual in the history of Dutch art ? Later on Rem- 
brandt himself was to work in the same way ; but 
with what mighty powers of invention ! What a start- 
ling expression of the inner meaning, the philosophy 
of a subject, is united in his fashion of treatment 
with the realistic ideals of the national genius ! In 
truth, it is not merely the peculiar characteristic of an 
individual — the indifference to, or aversion from, con- 
ventional beauty of form which is apparent in this 
great master, so far-reaching in moral vision, so pre- 
eminently sagacious and profound among painters of 
the soul ; it sums up and reveals the innate disposition 
and aesthetic temperament of a whole race. 

In his brief career Lucas van Leyden had the 
happiness to see his efforts rewarded and his credit 
universally established, and of this authority and 
influence he ever made the noblest use. Looked 
upon as a leader by the painters of his country ; in 
friendly relations with the German engravers, who, 
like Albert Dlirer, sent him their works, or came 
themselves to ask advice ; possessing greater wealth 
than usually fell to the share of the artists of his time; 
he never employed his riches or his influence except 
in the interest of art, or of the men who practised it. 
He refused no solicitant of merit, however slight. 
The worthy master was careful to disguise his aid 
under pretext of some advantage to himself: he was 
always requiring drawings of some building or some 
artistic object, and thus he spared the self-respect of 
the person whom he wished to help, and whom he 
entrusted with the commission. More than once he 


went journeying through the Low Countries to visit 
engravers and painters far inferior to himself, whom 
he yet modestly called his rivals. He complimented 
them with words of praise and encouragement ; gave 
entertainments in their honour ; and did not leave 
them without exchanging his works for theirs, which 
were thus paid for a hundred times over. 

It was in one of these journeys, that to Flushing, 
that Lucas van Leyden was attacked with the disease 
which was destined to carry him to the grave. Some 
people have attributed to poison the suddenness of 
the attack ; but of this there is no proof. Once back 
in his native town, he lingered on some time, worn 
out and sinking, yet refusing to condemn himself 
to idleness. Too feeble to rise, he yet continued to 
draw and engrave in bed, remaining faithful till the 
end to the noble passion of his life, to the art he had 
dignified, and to that nature which he had questioned 
more closely, and, in certain respects, perhaps better 
understood than any of his predecessors. It is said 
that a few hours before his death he desired to be 
taken up to a terrace of his house, that he might once 
more admire the setting sun ; and there, absorbed in 
silent contemplation, surrounded by friends and pupils, 
he for the last time gazed on the place of his birth, 
and on that heaven from which the light was fading, 
even as life was ebbing from his bosom. It was a 
proper conclusion to so pure a life — to one, indeed, 
of the most irreproachable careers in the history of 
art. Lucas van Leyden died at thirty-eight, an age 
fatal to more than one great artist, and which was 


scarcely attained by three men with whom he seems 
linked by a similarity of genius, at least as regards 
early fertility and sincerity of inspiration : Raphael, 
Lesueur, and Mozart. 

The impetus given by Lucas van Leyden to the 
art of engraving was seconded, even during his life, 
by several Dutch artists who imitated his method 
more or less successfully. Amongst others, Alart 
Claessen, an anonymous engraver called the " Maitre 
a r£crevisse," and Dirck Star, or Van Staren, generally 
called the " Maitre a I'Etoile." The movement did 
not slacken after the death of the leader of the school. 
The engravers of the Low Countries, accentuating 
more and more the qualities aimed at from the 
beginning, soon surpassed their German rivals, and 
seemed alone to be gifted with the knack of dealing 
with light. Cornelius Cort, who engraved several of 
Titian's works in Venice in the great painter's studio, 
and the pupils he educated on his return to Holland, 
began to exhibit a boldness of touch not to be so 
clearly discovered in their predecessors ; but this pro- 
gress, real in some respects, was not accomplished 
without injury to truthful study and the exact inter- 
pretation of form, and certainly not without a deplor- 
able exaggeration in the use of means. 

The workmanship of Hendrik Goltzius, for in- 
stance, and still more that of his pupil, Jan Miiller, is 
strained and feeble owing to their affectation of ease. 
The constant use of bent and parallel lines unrieason- 
ably prolonged imparts to the plates of these two 
engravers an appearance at once dull and florid ; 


they present something of the same aspect as those 
cah'graphical specimens of the present day, in which 
the faces of Henri IV. or of Napoleon are drawn 
entirely with the curves of a single stroke. Still, 
in spite of this extremely affected workmanship, 
the prints of Goltzius, of Miiller, and even of 
Saenredam, arc characterised by a comparative in- 
tensity of tone, as well as by singular skill in cutting 
the copper. This abuse of method, however, had 
not yet become general in the schools of the Low 
Countries. Side by side with, the intemperate or 
daring craftsmen we have mentioned, there were 
certain Flemish and Dutch engravers who imparted 
to their work a delicacy and a reticence of expres- 
sion better suited to the traditions and the models 
bequeathed by Lucas van Leyden. These were 
Nicolas van Bruyn at Antwerp, the brothers Wierix 
at Amsterdam, and some few others, all of them dis- 
ciples more or less faithful to the old teaching, and 
apparently more or less hostile to the effort at eman- 
cipation going on around them. When, however, 
Rubens took the reins, individual resistance and im- 
pulse ceased, and all controversy was at an end. 
Principles, method, and aim became the same for 
every one. Both Dutch and Flemish engravers openly 
set themselves to represent with the graver the infinite 
gradations of a painted canvas, the delicacy and the 
daring, the nicest punctilio and the most summary 
smearing, of the painter's brush. 

Never was the influence of a painter on engraving 
so direct or so potent as that of Rubens. The great 
J 2 


master had shown by his drawings that it was possible 
to be as rich a colourist with black and white alone as 
with all the resources of the palette. He made choice 
amongst his pupils of those whom he believed to be 
capable of following his example in this matter ; he 
obliged them to lay aside the brush, almost ordered 
them to become engravers, and so penetrated them 
with the secret of his method, that he seems to have 
animated them with his own inspiration. He assembled 
them in the vast house which he had built at Antwerp, 
and which he turned into a college of artists of all sorts. 
He made them sometimes labour beneath his eye ; he 
carefully corrected their work ;^ and in this way he 
taught them that comprehension of effect which was 
specially his, and his own incomparable knowledge of 
the right tones with which to lay in, or to support, a 
mass of light or shadow. 

To recall the success of these efforts is to recall 
the names of Vorsterman, Bolswert, Paul Pontius, and 
Soutman : men boldly scientiBc in their art, who, at the 
first rush, carried to perfection that style of engrav- 
ing which renders before all the relative richness and 
varied value of tones in a picture, and whose effects are 
identical in some sort with those of the painting itself 
It is obvious that, in spite of its prodigious merits, this 
painting is not of so elevated a nature as that of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci or Raphael ; but is it therefore less true 
that it is completely summed up, and its living image 

* In the National Library at Paris a collection of over a hundred 
trial proofs, retouched by Rubens himself, exists to bear witness to the 
careful attention with which he overlooked the work of his engravers. 


reflected, in contemporary engraving ? Actuated by 
an idea of colour and effect analogous to that of 
Marc Antonio with regard to drawing, the Flemish 
engravers resolutely subordinated accessories to the 
importance and splendour of essentials ; and in this 
way they succeeded in dissembling, by means of the 
breadth of the whole, the execution of details and 
even the laboriousness of the process. It would seem 
from the sparkling look and brilliant handiwork of 
these plates, that the engravers had thrown them off 
in a few hours of inspiration, so completely does their 
dash banish all idea of the time spent upon them, all 
sense of patience and toil. And yet these lights and 
shades, the sweep of the flesh, the sheen and shim- 
mer of the fabrics, are all the result of lines laboriously 
ploughed ; perhaps a thousand strokes have been 
needed to imitate an effect due to a single glaze, or 
given by two touches of the brush. 

The engravings of the Flemish school in Rubens' 
time are still widely distributed. There are few 
people who have not had the opportunity of admiring 
the "Thomiris," the "St. Roch Praying for the 
Plague-Stricken," or the " Portrait of Rubens," by 
Pontius ; the " Descent from the Cross," by Vorstcr- 
man ; the " Fall of the Damned," by Soutman ; and 
a hundred other pieces as beautiful, all engraved from 
the master by his pupils. And who does not know 
that marvellous masterpiece, the " Crown of Thorns," 
engraved by Bolswert from Van Dyck ? and those 
other masterpieces of Van Dyck himself — the etched 
portraits of artists or amateurs, the painter's friends, 



from the two Breughels to Cornelis, from Franz 
Snyders to Philip Le Roy ? 

The progress, however, by which the Flemish 
school of engraving had distinguished itself, soon 

Fig. 57. — VAN DYCK. 
Etched by Himself. 

had an equivalent in the movement of reform in 
Holland. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, 
and on from the beginning of the seventeenth, the 
Dutch engravers, by dint of insisting too strongly on 
the innovations of Lucas van Leyden, had almost 
succeeded in causing scientific ease of handling to 

degenerate into mere trickery, and spirit of design into 

Fig. 58.— CORNELIUS visscher. 
The Seller of Ratsbane. 

inflation and turbulence. Amongst the first, and 
with greater authority than any, Cornelius Visscher 


set himself to stay the art of Hne engraving on its 
downward course. 

Most of the scenes represented by Visscher are 
assuredly not of a nature greatly to interest the 
imagination, still less to touch the heart. It would 
be somewhat difficult to be moved to any philosophical 
or poetic thought by the contemplation of such work 
as the **Frying-Pan,"or the "Seller of Ratsbane;" but 
these, though the ideas by which they are suggested are 
trivial or commonplace, are treated with a deep feeling 
for truth, with admirable craftsmanship, and with an 
amount of sincerity and boldness which makes up for 
the absence of beauty, whether in thought or type. 
Considered only from the point of view of execution, 
the plates of Visscher are masterpieces ; are such 
marvels, indeed, that they cannot be too carefully 
studied by all engravers, whatever the style of their 

The same may be said in another order of art for 
those fine portraits — of " Boccaccio," of " Pietro Are- 
tino," and of " Giorgione " — engraved by Cornelius 
Van Dalen, the best of Visscher's pupils. It is also 
on the same ground, that, in spite of most notable 
differences in handling, the plates engraved by Jonas 
Suyderhoef, after Terburg and Theodore de Keyse, 
command the attention of artists and amateurs. 
Finally, side by side with these works, in the exe- 
cution of which etching was only resorted to as a pre- 
paratory process, or sometimes was not even used at 
all, a number of subjects entirely engraved with the 
needle — etchings, to speak strictly — make up a whole 

which is the more creditable to the Dutch school, 


Giles Boutmn. 

inasmuch as it would be impossible at any time to 
find the like in the schools of other countries. French 



engraving had doubtless reason to be proud of the 
masterpieces of Claude Lorraine, or the clever and 




L H 

witty etchings of Callot and Israel Silvestre. In Italy 
after Parmigiano, Agostino Carracci, and certain other 



contemporary Bolognese, in Spain, Ribera, and after- 
wards Goya, acquired a legitimate renown as etchers. 
But whatever may be the merit of their individual 
work, these artists are unconnected in either of their 
native countries with any group wholly devoted to 

Fig. 61. — J. RUYSDAEL. 
The Little Cornfield. 

work of the same kind : with any artistic family of 
common origin, inclination, and belief. 

Now the skilful Dutch etchers do not come singly, 
nor at long intervals. They work in a body. It is 
within a few years, in fact almost simultaneously, that 
Adrian Brauwer and Adrian van Ostade publish their 
tavern scenes ; Ruysdael and Jan Both their land- 
scapes ; Paul Potter and Berghem, Adrian van de 


Velde, Marc de Bye, Karel du Jardin, such a mul- 
titude of charming Httle subjects, their village scenes 
and village people, their flocks in the fields, or their 
single animals. Whilst emulating each other's talent, 
all are agreed to pursue one and the same object, 
all are agreed as to the necessity of devotion to the 
study of surrounding nature and everyday truth. 

Although the Dutch etchers display in the totality 
of their achievement the same ideal and the same 
tendency, each keeps, if only in the matter of work- 
manship, a certain distinction and character of his 
own. One, however, stands out from the group with 
matchless splendour, with all the superiority of genius 
over talent : that one is Rembrandt. 

Pains and patience have been wasted on the secret 
of Rembrandt's method of etching and printing ; in 
trying to discover his tools and his manner of using 
them, so as to achieve with him those contrasts of 
soft shadow and radiant light. Vain quest of tech- 
nical tricks where, really, there is no more than a 
style born of imagination, and, like it, inspired from 
above! It may be said that with Rembrandt, as 
with great musical composers, the harmonic system 
is so closely alHed to the melodic idea, that analysis, 
if not impossible, is at least superfluous. It some- 
times happens — before a Correggio, for instance — that 
the charm of the painting affects one in a manner 
abstract enough to produce a sort of musical sen- 
sation. Though it does not appear that the art of 
engraving could be endowed with a similar expan- 
sive force, yet Rembrandt's etchings may almost be 


said to possess it. They give the fecHng of unde- 
fined aspirations rather than the limited likeness of 

Fig. 62.— REMBRANDT. 

Portrait of Himself : Rembrandt Appuye, 

things; the spectator is touched by the mysterious 
meaning of these passionate visions, rather than by 


the form in which they are conveyed. The impression 

Fig. 63.— REMliRANDT. 


received is so keen that it stifles any trivial wish to 

criticise, and certain details which would be painful 


Fig. 64.— REMBRANDT. 
Joseph's Coat brought to Jacob. 

elsewhere are here not even displeasing, inasmuch as 


no one would dream of requiring a mathematical ex- 

Fig. 65.— remrrandt. 
Tobit's Blindness. 

planation of the special conditions of the subject, or of 
the skill of workmanship which the artist has displayed 


Before the " Sacrifice of Abraham," the " Tobit/' the 
"Lazarus," and all the other soul-speaking mastcr- 


Fig. 66.— REMBRANDT. 
Jnn Lutma, 


pieces, who would pause to consider the strangeness 
or the vulgarity of the personages and their apparel ? 
Only the critic, who, unwitting of the rest, would 
begin by examining with a magnifying glass the 
ivorkmansJdp of the ray of light which illumines the 
" Hundred Guilder Piece," the " Annunciation," or 
the " Pilgrimage to Emmaus." 

Rembrandt's method is, so to speak, supcrsensuous. 
At times he lightly touches his plate, and at times he 
attacks as at a venture ; at others he skims the surface 
and caresses it with an exquisite refinement, a magical 
dexterity. In his lights he breaks the line of the 
contour, but only to resume and boldly accentuate it in 
his shadows ; or he reverses the method, and in the 
one, as in the other case, succeeds infallibly in fixing, 
satisfying, and convincing the attention. He uses en- 
graver's tools and methods as Bossuet uses words, 
subduing them to the needs of his thought, and con- 
straining them to express it, careless of fine finish as 
of trivial subtlety. Like Bossuet, too, he composes 
out of the most incongruous elements, out of the 
trivial and the lofty, the commonplace and the heroic, 
a style invariably eloquent ; and from the mingling 
of these heterogeneous elements there springs an ad- 
mirable harmony of result. 

The Flemish engravers formed by Rubens, and 
their Dutch contemporaries, had no worthy successors. 
The revolution they accomplished in the art was brief, 
and did not extend beyond the Low Countries. In 
Italy, Dutch and Flemish engravings were natu- 
rally despised. It is said — and it is easy to believe — 

that those accustomed to commune with Raphael and 

. ^'rJt^t:^f,lif^^ 

YU',. 67. — RKMBKANDT. 

The Beggars. 

Marc Antonio esteemed them fitting decorations "for 

K 2 



the walls of pothouses." In France and Germany, where 
Italian ideas in art had reigned since the sixteenth 

Fig. 68. — rembrandt. 
The Pancake-maker. 

century, they experienced at first no better reception. 
When at length the consideration they really deserved 


was accorded them, the superiority of France was 
established, and her engravers could no longer be 
expected to descend to imitation. The movement in 
the schools of the Low Countries, before the second 
half of the seventeenth century, is thus, to speak truth, 
a mere episode in the history of the art, and its mas- 
terpieces had no lasting influence on engraving in 
general. For it to have been otherwise, the engravers 
of other countries must have renounced, not only the 
national traditions, but even the models they had at 
hand. The method of Bolswert or of Pontius could 
only be usefully employed to reproduce the works of 
Rubens and Van Dyck. The handling of Visscher 
and of Suyderhoef was only suitable to such pictures 
as were painted in Amsterdam and Leyden. 

And meanwhile, when the schools of the Low 
Countries were shining with a lustre so brilliant and 
so transitory, what was doing in France ? and how in 
France was the great age of engraving inaugurated ? 




The French were unable to distinguisli themselv^es 
early in the art of engraving, as the conditions under 
which they laboured were different from those which 
obtained in Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries : 
the homes, all three of them, of schools of painting. 
From the thirteenth century onwards, the architects 
and sculptors of France had produced an unbroken 
succession of good things; but the origin of her school 
of painting is not nearly so remote, nor has it such 
sustained importance. Save for the unknown glass- 
painters of her cathedrals, for the miniaturists who 
preceded and succeeded Jean Fouquet, and for the 
artists in chalks whose work is touched with so pe- 
culiar a charm and so delicate an originality, she 
can boast of no great painter before Jean Cousin. 
And the art of engraving could scarcely have flou- 
rished when, as yet, the art of painting had scarcely 

Wood-cutting, it is true, was practised in France 
with a certain success, as early as the beginning of 


the sixteenth century, and even a Httle before that. 
The " Danses macabres " — those aids to morality so 
popular in mediaeval times — the illustrated " Books 
of Hours/' and other compilations besides, printed 
with figures and tail-pieces, in Lyons or Paris, give 
earnest of the unborn masterpieces of Geofroy Tory, 
of Jean Cousin himself, and of sundry other draughts- 


men and wood-cutters of the reigns of Francois I. 
and Henri II. But, as practised by goldsmiths, such 
as Jean Duvet and r2tienne Dclaunc, and by painters 
of the Fontainebleau school like Ren(5 Boyvin and 
Geofroy Dumonstier, line engraving and etching were 
still no more than a means of popularising extrava- 
gant imitations of Italian work. The prints of 
Nicolas Beatrizet, who had been the pupil of Agos- 
tino Musi at Rome, and those of another engraver 
of Lorraine, whose name has been Italianised into 


Niccolo della Casa, appear to have been produced 

Fig. 70.— jean duvet. 
The Power of Royalty. 

with the one object of deifying the spirit of sham, and 
converting French engravers to that religion to which 

ITS in:GiNNiN(;s in France and England. 153 

French painters had apostatised with so much ill- 
fortune under the influence of the Italians brought 
in by Francis I. 

During the whole of the sixteenth and the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth centuries the French 


Fig. 71. — 6TIENNE DELAUNF,. 
Adam and Eve driven from Paradise. 

school of engraving had neither method nor bent of 
its own ; but meanwhile it was a whim of fashion 
that every one should handle the burin or the point. 
From the days of Henri II. to those of Louis XIII., 
craftsman or layman, everybody practised engraving. 
There were goldsmiths like Pierre Wociriot, pain- 
ters like Claude Corneille and Jean do Gourmont, 

Fig. 72. — 1^:11 i:NiJF. df.i.aunk. 

architects like Androuet du Cerccau ; there were 

Ornamented Vase. 

noblemen ; there were even ladies — as, for instance, 


Georgette de Montenay, who dedicated to Jeanne 
d'Albret a collection of mottoes and emblems, partly, 
it was said, of her own engraving. All the world and 
his wife, in fact, were gouging wood and scraping 
copper. It must be repeated that the prints of this 
time are for the most part borrowed — are copies 
feeble or stilted, or both, of foreign originals. Not 
until after some years of thraldom could the French 
engravers shake off the yoke of Italian art, create a 
special style, and constitute themselves a school. 
The revolution was prepared by Thomas de Leu and 
Leonard Gaultier, engravers of portraits and of his- 
torical subjects ; but the hero of the French school 
is Jacques Callot. 

There are certain names in the history of the 
arts which retain an eternal odour of popularity ; we 
remember them as those of men of talent, who were 
also in some sort heroes of romance, and our interest 
remains perennial. Jacques Callot is one of these. He 
is probably the only French engraver * whose name 
is yet familiar to the general public. That this is so 
is hardly the effect of his work, however excellent : 
it is rather the result of his adventures ; of his flight 
from home in childhood ; his wanderings with the 
gipsies ; and the luck he had — his good looks aiding — 
with the ladies of Rome, and even (it is whispered) 
with the wife of Thomassin his master. 

We have said it is Callot's merit to have lifted 

* At the time of Callot's birth Lorraine was not yet French territory ; 
but as it was during his life that Nancy was taken by the king's army, 
we have a right to include him among P^rench artists. 


Henri IV. 


the French school of engraving out of the rut in 
which it dragged, and to have opened for it a new 
path. He did not, however, accompHsh the work 
with an entire independence, nor without some lean- 
ings towards that Italy in which he had been 
trained. After working in Florence under Canta- 
Gallina, whose freedom of style and fantastic taste 
could not but prove irresistible to , the future artist 
of Franca Trippa and Fritellino, he had been obliged 
to return to Nancy. Thence he escaped a second 
time, and thither was a second time brought back 
by his eldest brother, who had been despatched in 
pursuit. A third journey took him to Rome ; and 
there, whether glad to be rid of him or weary of 
debate, his family let him remain. 

It is probable that during his expatriation,* 
Callot never so much as dreamed of learning; from 
the Old Masters ; but he did not fail to make a close 
study of certain contemporaries who were masters so 
called. Paul V. was Pope ; and the age of Raphael 
and Marc Antonio, of Julius II. and Leo X., was for 
ever at an end. The enfeebling eclecticism of the 
Carracci, and the profitless fecundity of Guido, had 
given currency to all sorts of second-rate qualities, 
and in painting had substituted prettiness for beauty. 
The result was an invasion of frivolity, alike in 
manners and beliefs, which was destined to find its 
least dubious expression in the works of Le Josepin, 

* He was in all twelve years in Italy : three in Rcme, and nine 
in riorencc. 


and later on in those of an artist of kindred tastes 
with the Lorraine engraver — the fantastical Salvator 
Rosa. When Callot settled in Rome in 1609, Le 
Josepin had already reached the climax of fame and 

Franca Trippa 



FlC. 75. — CALLOT. 

From the Set entitled " Balli di Sfessania." 

fortune ; Salvator, at an interval of nearly thirty years, 
was on the heels of his first success. Coming, as he 
did, to take a place among the dexterous and the 
eccentric, it seems that Callot could not have chosen 
a better time It was not long before he attracted 
attention ; for when he left Rome for Florence, where 
he produced some of his liveliest work, his name 
and his capacity were already in repute. 

At Florence ' his capacity was perfected under the 


influence of Giulio Parigi ; and, thanks to the favour 
of Duke Cosmo II., which he easily obtained, his 
name soon became famous in the world of fashion as 
among connoisseurs. Unlike his countrymen, Claude 
Lorraine and the noble Poussin, who, some years later, 
were in this same Italy to live laborious and thought- 
ful lives, Callot freely followed his peculiar vein, and 
saw in art no more than a means of amusement, in 
the people about him only subjects for caricature, and 
in imaginative and even religious subjects but a pre- 
text for grotesque invention. Like another French 
satirist, Mathurin Regnier, who had preceded him in 
Rome, he was addicted to vulgar types, to rags and de- 
formities, even to the stigmata of debauchery. Thus, 
the works of both these two men, whom we may com- 
pare together, too often breathe a most dishonourable 
atmosphere of vice. With a frankness which goes the 
length of impudence, they give full play to their taste 
for degradation and vile reality ; and yet their vigour 
of expression does not always degenerate into cynicism, 
nor is the truth of their pictures always shameless. 
The fact is, both had the secret of saying exactly 
enough to express their thoughts, even when these 
were bred by the most capricious fancy. They may 
be reproached with not caring to raise the standard of 
their work ; but it is impossible to deny them the merit 
of having painted ugliness of every kind firmly and with 
elegant precision, nor that of having given, each in his 
own language, a definite and truly national form to that 
art of satire which had been hardly so much as rough- 
hewn in the caricatures and pamphlets of the League. 

FlO. 76.— J. CALLOT. 
From tho Set entitled " Lcs Gentilshommes. 


Etchings, but little practised in Germany after the 
death of Diirer, had found scarcely greater favour in 
Italy. As to the Dutch Little Masters, spoken of 
in the preceding chapters, the time was not yet come 
for most of their charming works. Claude Lorraine's 
etchings, now so justly celebrated, were themselves 
of later date than Callot's. The latter was, therefore, 
the real author of this class of work. In his hand the 
needle acquired a lightness and boldness not presaged 
in previous essays, which were at once coarse and care- 
less. In his suggestions of life in motion, he imitated 
the swift and lively gait of the pencil, whilst his con- 
tours are touched with the severity of the pen, if not 
of the burin itself. In a word, he gave his plates an 
appearance of accuracy without destroying that look 
of improvisation which is so necessary to work of 
the kind ; in this way he decided the nature and 
special conditions of etching. It was owing to his 
influence that French art first attracted the attention 
of the Italians : Stefano della Bella, Cantarini and 
even Canta-Gallina (who did not disdain to copy the 
etchings of his old pupil), Castiglione the Genoese, 
and many others, essayed, with more or less success, 
to appropriate the style of the master of Nancy ; and 
when he returned to establish himself in France, where 
his reputation had preceded him, he found admirers, 
and before long a still greater following of imitators. 

He was presented to Louis XIII., who at once com- 
missioned him to engrave the " Siege of La Rochelle," 
and received at Court with remarkable favour, which 
was, however, withdrawn some years later, when he was 

FiC. 77. — J. CAI.LOT. 

From the Set entitled " Les Ciiuux. 

L 2 


bold enough to oppose the will of RicheHeu. After the 
taking of Nancy (1633) from the Duke of Lorraine, 
Callot's sovereign, the great Cardinal, to immortalise 
the event, ordered the engraver to make it the subject 
of a companion print to that of the '' Siege of La 
Rochelle," which he had just finished ; but he was 
revolted by the idea of using his talents for the humi- 
liation of his prince, and replied to Richelieu's mes- 
senger, " that he would rather cut off his thumb than 
obey." The reply was not of a kind to maintain him 
in the good graces of the Cardinal, and Callot felt it. 
He took leave of the king, and soon after retired to his 
native town, where he died at the age of forty-three. 

Really introduced into France by Callot, etching 
had become the fashion there. Abraham Bosse and 
Israel Silvestre helped to popularise it, the latter by 
applying it to topography and architecture, the former 
by using it for the illustration of religious and scientific 
books, and the embellishment of the fans and other 
elegant knick-knacks then selling in that " Galerie 
Dauphine du Palays " which is figured in one of his 
prints, and from which a play of Corneiile's derives 
its name. He published besides an infinite number 
of subjects of all sorts : domestic scenes, portraits, 
costumes, architectural ornaments, almost always en- 
graved from his own designs, and sometimes from 
those of the Norman painter. Saint- Ygny. 

Abraham Bosse is doubtless a second-rate man, 
but he is far from having no merit at all. He is an 
intelligent, if not a very delicate observer, who knows 
how to impart to his figures and to the general aspect 




O . 

iJ - . 


of a scene an appearance of reality which is not alto- 
gether the truth, but which comes very near to having 
its charm. He certainly possesses the instinct of cor- 
rect drawing, in default of refined taste and feeling ; 
and finally, to take him simply as an engraver, he has 
much of the bold and firm handling of Callot, with 
something already of that cheerful and thoroughly 
French cleverness which was destined to be more and 
more developed in the national school of engraving, 
and to reach perfection in the second half of the seven- 
teenth century. 

To Abraham Bosse are owing decided improve- 
ments in the construction of printing-presses, the 
composition of varnishes, and all the practical parts 
of the art ; to him some technical studies are also 
due, the most interesting of which, the " Traite des 
Manieres de Graver sur I'Airain par le Moyen des 
Eaux-fortes," is, if not the first, at least one of the first 
books on engraving published in France. We may 
add that the works of Abraham Bosse, like those of 
all other etchers of his time, show a continual tendency 
to imitate with the needle the work of the graver : a 
tendency worth remarking, though blamable in some 
respects, as its result is to deprive each class of work 
of its peculiar character, and from etching in particular 
to remove its appearance of freedom and ease. 

We have reached the moment when the French 
school of engraving entered the path of progress, no 
more to depart from it, and when, after having fol- 
lowed in the rear of foreign engravers, the French 
masters at length began to make up with and almost 

to outdistance them. Before proceeding, \ve must 


pi . 

I : 

glance at the movement of those schools whose be- 
ginnings we have already traced. 


The line of really great Italian painters went out 
with the sixteenth century. Domenichino, indeed, Anni- 
bale Carracci, and a few others, glorified the century 
that followed ; but their works, although full of senti- 
ment, skill, and ability, are quite as much affected by 
the pernicious eclecticism of the period and by the 
general decline in taste. After them all the arts 
deglined. Sculpture and architecture became more 
and more degraded under the influence of Bernini and 
Borromini. Athirst for novelty of any kind, people 
had gradually come to think the most extravagant 
fancies clever. To bring the straight line into greater 
disrepute, statues and bas-reliefs were tortured as by 
a hurricane; attitudes, draperies, and even immovable 
accessories were all perturbed and wavering. The 
engravers were no better than the painters, sculptors, 
and architects. By dint of exaggerating the idealistic 
cKced, they had fallen into mere insanity ; and in 
the midst of this degradation of art, they aimed at 
nothing save excitement and novelty, so that their, 
invention was only shown in irregular or overlengthy 
lines, and their impetuosity in bad drawing. Daily 
wandering further from the paths of the masters, 
the Italian engravers at last attained, througli the 
abuse of method, a complete oblivion of the essential 
conditions of their art ; so that with few excep- 
tions, till the end of the eighteenth century, no- 
thing is to be found save barren sleight-of-hand in 
the works of that very school, which, in the days 
of Marc Antonio and his pupils, had been universally 


After the Little Masters, inheritors of some of 
the genius, skill, and renown of Albert Durer, 

i?^-'"-?)'-^^ ^ \ 


From the Set entitled " Le Jardin de la Noblesse Fran9aise.' 


Germany had given birth to a fair number of clever 
engravers, the majority of whom had left their country. 
Some of them, indistinguishable to-day from the 
second generation of Marc Antonio's disciples, had, 
as we said, abandoned the national style for the 
Italian ; others had settled in France or in the Low 
Countries. The Thirty Years' War accomplished the 
ruin of German art, which before long was represented 
only in Frankfort, where Matthew Merian of Basle, 
and his pupils, with certain engravers from neigh- 
bouring countries, had taken refuge. 

Whilst engraving was declining in Italy and Ger- 
many, the English school was springing into being. 
Though at first of small importance, the beginnings 
and early essays of the school are such as may hardly 
pass without remark. 

For some time England had seemed to take little 
part in the progress of the fine arts in Europe, except 
commercially, or as the hostess of many famous 
artists, from Holbein to Van Dyck. There were a 
certain number of picture-dealers and print-sellers in 
London, but under Charles I. her only painters and 
engravers of merit were foreigners."^ The famous 
portrait painter. Sir Peter Lely, whom the English 
are proud to own, was a German, as was Kneller, 
who inherited his reputation, and, as was Hollar, an 

* William Faithorne, the first line engraver worth mentioning in 
the history of English art, did not even begin to be known till after 
Charles I. After the king's fall, Faithorne, who was a Royalist, went 
to France, where, under Nanteuil, he perfected himself in his art, and 
did not finally settle in England till near the end of 1650. 


engraver of unrivalled talent."^ And while a few 
pupils of this last artist were doing their best to 
imitate his example, the taste for line engraving and 
etching, which processes were being slowly and pain- 
fully popularised by their efforts, was suddenly changed 
into a passion for another method, in which the 
principal success of the English school has since been 

Prince Rupert, so renowned for his courage and 
his romantic adventures, had the fortunate chance to 
introduce to London the process of engraving which 
is called mezzotint. In spite, however, of what has 
been alleged, the honour of the invention is not his. 
Ludwig von Siegen, a lieutenant-colonel in the ser- 
vice of the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, had certainly 
discovered mezzotint before the end of 1642, for in 
the course of that year he published a print in this 
style — the portrait of the Princess Amelia Elizabeth 
of Hesse — the very first ever given to the public. 
Von Siegen for awhile refused to divulge his secret. 
"There is not," he wrote to the Landgrave of Hesse 
concerning this same portrait, " a single engraver, nor 
a single artist, who knows how this work was done." 

And, indeed, no one succeeded in finding out, and 

* Hollar is not merely one of the most distinguished of German 
engravers. There are few artists in any country who have handled the 
needle with so much skill and intelligence ; there is probably none who 
has so greatly excelled in rendering the details of apparel and of the 
daintiest objects. His achievement numbers more than 2,000 prints, 
which, in spite of their small size, and the generally trifling nature of 
the subjects, deserve to be classed amongst the most remarkable etched 
work of the seventeenth century. 


it was only after a silence of twelve years that 
Von Siegen consented to reveal his mystery. Prince 
Rupert, then at Brussels, was the first initiated. He, 
in his turn, chose for confidant the painter Wallerant 
Vaillant, who apparently did not think himself bound 
to strict silence, for, soon afterwards, a number of 
Flemish engravers attempted the process. Once 
made public, no one troubled about the man who 
had invented it. He was, in fact, so quickly and 
completely forgotten, that even in 1656 Von Siegen 
was obliged to claim the title, which no one any 
longer dreamed of giving him, and to sign his works : 
" Von Siegen, the first and true inventor of this kind 
of engraving." It was still worse in London when 
the plates engraved by Prince Rupert were exhibited, 
and when the English artists had learnt how they 
could produce the like. They set themselves to work 
without looking out for any other models, and were 
much more taken up with their own results than the 
history of the discovery, the whole honour of which 
was attributed to Rupert, the man who in reality had 
only made it public. 

The talent of Rupert's first imitators, like that of 
the originator himself, did not rise above mediocrity. 
Amongst their direct successors, and the successors 
of these, there are few of much account ; but in the 
eighteenth century, when Sir Joshua Reynolds under- 
took, like Rubens at Antwerp, to himself direct the 
work of engraving, the number of good English mezzo- 
tint engravers became considerable. Earlom, Ardell, 
Smith, Dickinson, Green, Watson, and many others 


deserving of mention, greatly increased the resources 
of the process, by applying it to the reproduction 

Fig. 81.— prince rupert. 
Head of a Young Man (engraved in Mezzotint). 

o( the master's works. Mezzotint, at first reserved 
for portraits, was used for subjects of every sort : 


flower pieces, genre, even history ; and step by step 
it attained to practical perfection, of which, at the 
beginning of the present century, the Engh'sh still 
had the monopoly. 

The methods of mezzotint differ completely from 
those of line engraving and etching. With the graver 
and the needle the shadows and half-tones are made 
out on copper by means of incised lines and touches ; 
with the mezzotint tool, on the contrary, the lights 
are produced by scraping, the shadows by leaving 
intact the corresponding portions of the plate. In- 
stead of offering a flat, smooth surface, hke the plates 
in line engraving, a mezzotint copper must be first 
grained by a steel tool (called the " rocker "), shaped 
like a chisel, with a semicircular blade which is bevelled 
and toothed. Sometimes (and this is generally the 
case in the present day) the " rocking " of the surface, 
on which the engraver is to work, is produced, not by 
a tool, but by a special machine. 

When the drawing has been traced in the usual 
way on the prepared plate, the grain produced by the 
rocker is rubbed down with the burnisher wherever 
pure white or light tints are required. The parts that 
are not flattened by the burnisher print as darks ; 
and these darks are all the deeper and more velvety 
as they result from the grain itself — that is to say, from 
a general preparation specially adapted to catch the 
ink — and are by no means composed, as in line en- 
graving, of furrows more or less crowded or cross- 

Mezzotint engraving has, in this respect, the 


advantage of other processes ; in all others it is de- 
cidedly inferior. The rough grain produced on a 
plate by the rocker, and the mere scraping by which 
it is obliterated or modified, are technical hindrances 
to decided drawing : only with graver or point is it 
possible to make outlines of perfect accuracy. Again, 
precision, delicacy of modelling, and perfect finish in 
detail are impossible to the scraper. Mezzotint, in 
fine, is suitable for the translation of pictures where 
the light is scarce and concentrated, but is powerless 
to render work qui^t in aspect and smooth in effect. 

English engravers, then, had begun to rank as 
artists. Callot, and, after him, other French engravers 
already remarkably skilful, had succeeded in found- 
ing a school which was soon to be honoured by the 
presence of true masters ; Italy and Germany were 
deteriorating steadily. Meanwhile, what was going 
on elsewhere } In Spain there was a brilliant galaxy 
of painters, some of whom, like Ribera, have left 
etchings ; but there were few or no professional en- 
gravers. In Switzerland, Jost Amman of Zurich 
(1539 — 1 590 ^vas succeeded by a certain number of 
illustrator-engravers, heirs of his superficial clever- 
ness and of his commercial rather than artistic ideas : 
engravers, by the way, who are commonly confounded 
with the- German masters of the same epoch. 
Lastly, the few Swedes or Poles who studied art, 
whether in Flanders or Germany, never succeeded in 
popularising the ta.ste for it in their own countries ; 
only for form's sake need they be mentioned. 

The first of the two great phases of the history of 


engraving ends about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. We have seen that the influence of Marc 
Antonio, though combated at first by the influence of 
Albert Durer, easily conquered, and prevailed without 
a rival in Italy, Germany, and even France, until the 
appearance of Callot and his contemporaries. Mean- 
while, in the Low Countries the art presented a phy- 
siognomy of its own, developed slowly, and ended 
by undergoing a thorough, but brief, transformation 
under the authority of Rubens. The Flemish school 
was soon to be absorbed in that of France, and the 
second period, which may be termed the French, to 
begin in the history of engraving. 

Were it permissible, on the authority of examples 
given elsewhere, to compare a multitude of men 
separated by difl"erences of epoch and endowment, 
we might arrange the old engravers in the order 
adopted for a group of much greater artists by the 
painters of the " Apotheosis of Homer " and the 
" Hemicycle of the Palais des Beaux-Arts." Let us 
regard them in our mind's eye as a master might 
figure them. In the centre is Finiguerra, the father 
of the race ; next to him, on the one side, are the 
Master of 1466, Martin Schongauer, and Albert 
Diirer ; on the other, Mantegna and Marc Antonio, 
surrounded, like the three German masters, by their 
disciples, amongst whom they maintain an attitude 
of command. Between the two groups, but rather 
on the German side, is Lucas van Leyden, first in 
place, as by right, among the Dutchmen. Below 
these early masters, who wear upon their brows 


that expression of severity which distinguishes their 
work, comes the excited crowd of daring innovators, 
whose merit is in the spirit of their style — Bolswert, 
Vorsterman, Pontius, CorneHus Visscher, Van Dalen, 
and their rivals. Rembrandt muses apart, sombre, 
and as though shrouded in mystery. Lastly, in the 
middle distance, are seen the merely clever engravers : 
the Dutch Little Masters, Callot, Hollar, and Israel 

If, on the other hand, we must abandon this realm 
of fancy for the regions of fact, we might sum up the 
results of past progress by instancing a few prints 
of perfect beauty. Our own selection would be Man- 
tegna's " Entombment ;" Marc Antonio's " Massacre 
of the Innocents;" the "Death of the Virgin," by 
Martin Schongauer ; Durer's "Melancholia;" the 
" Calvary " of Lucas van Leyden ; Rembrandt's 
" Christ Healing the Sick ; " Bolswert's " Crown of 
Thorns ; " the " Portrait of Rubens," by Paul Pontius, 
or the " Gellius de Bouma " of Cornelius Visscher ; 
and finally, Callot's " Florentine Fair," or " Garden 
at Nancy," and the " Bouvier," or, better still, the 
•* Soleil Levant '' of Claude Lorraine. Happy the 
owner of this selection of masterpieces : the man 
who, better inspired than the majority of his kind, 
has preferred a few gems to an overgrown and un- 
wieldy collection. 





We have followed through all its stages the progress 
of the art of engraving, from the time of its earliest 
more or less successful attempts, to the time when 
a really important advance was accomplished. How- 
ever brilliant these early phases may have been, pro- 
perly speaking they include but the beginnings of 
the art. The epoch we are now to traverse is that of 
its complete development and fullest perfection. 

We have seen that the schools of Italy and the 
Low Countries had, each in its own direction, largely 
increased the resources of engraving, without ex- 
hausting them. The quality of drawing would seem 
to have been carried to an inimitable perfection in 
the works of Marc Antonio, had not examples of a 
keener sense of form and an exactness even more 
irreproachable been discovered in those of the French 
masters of the seventeenth century. The engravings 
produced under the direct influence of Rubens only 
remained the finest specimens of the science of 
colour and effect until the appearance of the plates 
engraved in Paris by Gerard Audran. Finally, 
though the older engravers had set themselves the 
task of accentuating a certain kind of beauty, suitable 


to the peculiar tastes and capacities of the schools 
to which they belonged, none of them had sought, 
at least with any success, to present in one whole all 
the different species of beauty inherent in the art. It 
was reserved for the French engravers of the age of 
Louis XIV. to unite in one supreme effort qualities 
which till then had seemed to exclude each other. 
While they proved themselves draughtsmen as skilful 
and colourists as good as the best of their predeces- 
sors, they excelled them in their harmonious fusion 
of whatever qualities are appropriate to engraving, as 
also in the elasticity of their theory and the all-round 
capacity of their method. 

The worlcs of the Louis XIII. engravers heralded 
this new departure, and prepared the way for the real 
masters. As soon as, with a view to securing a 
certain measure of independence, the French school 
of painting had begun to free itself from the spirit of 
systematic imitation, the art of line engraving pro- 
ceeded resolutely along an open path, and marked its 
course by still more significant improvements. To 
say nothing of Thomas de Leu — who for that matter 
was not, perhaps, born in France^ — and nothing of 
Leonard Gaultier, who, like De Leu, principally 
worked in the reign of Henri IV., Jean Morin, whose 
method, at once so picturesque and so firm, was the 
result of a peculiar combination of acid, dry-point, 

* His first plates are sometimes signed ** De Leeuw," sometimes 
"Tomaes de Leu," which has led many writers — M. Robert- 1 )umesnil 
among them — to suppose that he migrated to Paris from a town in 

>I 2 


and the graver, Michel Lasne, Claud Mellan — in 
spite of the somewhat pretentious ease and rather 
affected skill of his handling — and other line eng'ravers, 
variously capable, each after his kind, are found to 
owe nothing to foreign example. Their works already 
do more than hint at the new departure ; but we are 
approaching the period when distinguished engravers 
become so common in the French school, that in this 
pla-ce we need only mention those whose names are 
still of special importance. 

Robert Nanteuil, one of the most eminently dis- 
tinguished, and, taking them chronologically, one of 
the first, was destined for the bar, and in his youthful 
tastes showed none of that irresistible tendency to the 
arts which is the common symptom of great talent. 
Whilst studying literature and science at Rheims, 
where he was born in 1626, he also took up drawing 
and engraving, but with no idea of devoting him- 
self steadily to either. It seems, however, that after 
having merely dallied in odd moments with the art 
which was one day to make him famous, he very soon 
concluded that he had served a sufficient apprentice- 
ship ; for at nineteen he set about engraving the 
frontispiece to his own philosophical thesis. 

It was in those days the custom to ornament such 
writings with figures and symbols appropriate to the 
candidate's position, or to the subject of his argument. 
The most distinguished painters did not disdain to 
design originals, and the frontispieces engraved from 
Philippe de Champagne, Lesueur, and Lebrun, are not 
unworthy of the talent and reputation of those great 

Fig. 82.- jfan morin. 
Antoine Vitr<5. After Philippe de Champagne. 


men. Nanteuil, In emulation, was anxious not only 
to produce a masterpiece, but to invest it with an 
appearance of grandeur as little fitted to his position 
as to his slender acquaintance with the art. However 
that may have been, he sustained his thesis to the 
satisfaction of the judges ; and, albeit an exceedingly 
bad one, his engraving was admired in the society 
which he frequented."^ Some verses addressed to 
ladies t still further increased his reputation as a 
universal genius. Unfortunately, to all these public 
successes were added others of a more purely per- 
sonal nature, which were soon noised abroad ; and it 
would appear that, fresh adventures having led to a 
vexatious scandal, Nanteuil, who shortly before had 
married the sister of the engraver Regnesson, was 
compelled to leave, almost in secrecy, a place where 
once he had none save admirers and friends. By a 
fatal coincidence the fugitive's family was ruined at 
the same time : it became imperative for him to live by 
his own work, and to seek his fortune in the practice 
of draughtsmanship. 

Abandoning the law, he therefore set out for Paris, 

* It represents a ** Holy Family," with this inscription on a stone, 
to the right : *' R. Nanteuil Philosophic Auditor Sculpebat Rhemis 
An° dni 1645." 

t These ilights were not Nanteuil's last. There is extant a sort ot 
petition in verse, which he one day presented to Louis XIV. to excuse 
himself for not having finished in time a portrait ordered by the king. 
These rhymes, quoted by the Abbe Lambert in his " Histoire Lilteraire 
du Regne de Louis XIV.," and some others composed by Nanteuil in 
praise of Mile, de Scudery, are not such to make us regret that he did 
not more frequently lay aside the graver for the pen. 


where he arrived poor and unknown, but determined 
to succeed. The question was, how without intro- 
ductions to gain patrons ? how to make profitable 
acquaintances in the great city ? After losing some 
days in quest of a good opening, it is said that he 
hit upon a somewhat strange device. He had brought 
with him from Rheims some crayon portraits, as 
specimens of his ability ; he chose one of these, and 
waited at the door of the Sorbonne till the young 
divinity students came out of class. He followed 
them into a neighbouring wine shop, where they were 
wont to take their meals, and pretended to be looking 
for some one whose portrait he had taken (he said) the 
week before. He knew neither the name nor address 
of his sitter, but thought that if his fellow-students 
would look at the drawing, they might be able and 
willing to help him. It is superfluous to say that the 
original of the portrait was not recognised ; but the 
picture passed from hand to hand, and was admired ; 
the price was asked, the artist was careful to be 
moderate in his demands, and some of the young 
men were so taken by the smallness of the sum, that 
they offered to sit for their portraits. The first 
finished and approved, other students in their turn 
wanted their portraits for their families and friends. 
This gave the young artist more remunerative work. 
His connection rapidly increased, and before long he 
was entrusted with the reproduction, on copper, of 
drawings commissioned by distinguished parliament 
men and persons of standing at the Court. At last 
the king, whose portrait he afterwards engraved in 


different sizes — as often as eleven times — gave him a 
number of sittings, after which Nanteuil received a 
pension and the title of Dessinateur du Cabinet."^ 

Louis XIV. was not satisfied with thus reward- 
ing a talent already recognised as superior ; he was 
also desirous of stimulating by general measures the 
development of what he had himself declared a 
" liberal art." f Engravers were privileged to exer- 
cise it without being subjected to "any apprentice- 
ship, or controlled by other laws than those of their 
own genius ; " and seven years later (1667) the royal 
establishment at the Gobelins became virtually a 
school of engraving. Whilst Lebrun, its first director- 
in-chief, assembled therein an army of painters, 
draughtsmen, and even sculptors, and wrought from 
his own designs the tapestries of the " Elements " 
and the " Saisons," Sebastien Leclerc superintended 
the labours of a large body of native and foreign 
engravers, entertained at the king's expense. 

One of these, Edelinck, had been summoned to 
France by Colbert. Born at Antwerp in 1640, and a 

* The greater part of Nanteuil's drawings are in three crayons, 
made out in places with light tints in pastel. The colour is sober and 
delicate, and offers a good deal of resemblance to the charming 
French crayons of the sixteenth century. Nanteuil doubtless produced 
many portraits which he never engraved, but he engraved very few that 
he had not previously produced. It must also be remarked, that in his 
achievement, which is composed of more than two hundred and thirty 
pieces, there are not more than eighteen subject pictures or illustrations. 
It is worthy, too, of special note that there are only eight portraits 
in which the hands are seen, and in six of these only one hand is 
shown. • 

t "fiditde Saint Jean-de:Luz," 1660. 


contemporary of the engravers trained by the disciples 
of Rubens himself, he was distinguished, like them, 
by his vigour of handling and knowledge of effect. 
Once settled in Paris, he supplemented these Flemish 
characteristics with qualities distinctively French, and 
was soon a foremost engraver of his time. Endowed 
with singular insight and elasticity of mind, he readily 
assimilated, and sometimes even improved upon, the 
style of those painters whom he reproduced, and 
adopted a new sentiment with every new original. 
He began, in France, with an engraving of Raphael's 
" Holy Family ,;' the so-called " Vierge de Frangois I.," 
which is severe in aspect, and altogether Italian in 
drawing; and he followed this up with plates of the 
" Madeleine " of Lebrun, his " Christ aux Anges," 
and his " Famille de Darius," all of them admirable 
reproductions, in which the defects of the originals are 
modified, while their beauties are increased by the use 
of methods which make their peculiar and essential 
characteristics none the less conspicuous. In inter- 
preting Lebrun, Edelinck altered neither his signifi- 
cance nor his style ; he only touched his work with 
fresh truth and nature: as, when dealing with Rigaud, 
he converted that artist's pomposity and flourish into 
a certain opulence and vigour. When, on the contrary, 
he had to interpret a work stamped with calm and 
reflective genius, his own bold and brilliant talent 
became impregnated with serenity, and he could 
execute with a marvellous reticence such a transla- 
tion as that from Philippe de Champagne — the 
painter's portrait of himself — a favourite, it is said, 


with the engraver, and one of the masterpieces of 
the art. 

When Edelinck arrived in Paris, Nanteuil, his 
senior by some fifteen years, had a studio at the Gobe- 
Hns, close to the one where he himself was installed. 
This seeming equality in the favour accorded to two 
men, then so unequal in reputation and achievement, 
would be astonishing unless we remember the object 
which brought them together, and the very spirit ot 
the institution. 

Things went on in the Gobelins almost as they 
did in Florence, in the gardens of San Marco, under 
Lorenzo de' Medici. Artists of repute worked side 
by side with beginners : not indeed together, but 
near enough for the master continually to help the 
student, and for the spirit of rivalry, the excitement 
of example, to keep alive a universal continuity of 
effort. French art had been lately honoured by three 
painters of the highest order — Poussin, Claude,^ and 
Lesueur ; but the first two lived in retirement, and 
far from France ; whilst the third had died leaving 
no pupils, and, consequently, no tradition. It seemed 
urgent, therefore, in order to perpetuate the glory of 
the school, to gather together both men of mature 
talent and men whose talent was yet young and 
unformed, and to impel them all towards a common 
object on a common line of work. Colbert it was 
who conceived and executed the plan, who assembled 

* Claude, it is true, was still alive in 1667 ; but after his second 
installation in Rome (1627), he never saw France again. 


all the great masters in painting, sculpture, and en- 
graving, whose services he could command, without 
omitting any younger men who might seem worthy of 
encouragement. He quartered them all at the Gobe- 
lins, and put over them the man best fitted to play 
the part of their organiser and supreme director. 
** There was a pre-established harmony between Louis 
XIV. and Lebrun," says M. Vitet,"*^ " and when the 
painter died (1690), neither he nor his master had as 
yet permitted any encroachment upon their territory." 
Lebrun might have appropriated a famous saying of 
the king, applied it* to his own absolute supremacy, 
and said, with truth, that he alone was French art. 
Everything connected with the art of design, whether 
directly or indirectly, from statues and pictures for 
public buildings down to furniture and gold plate, 
were all subject to his authority, and were all moulded 
by his influence. It was an unfortunate influence 
in some respects, for it made the painting and sculp- 
ture of the epoch monotonously bombastic ; but to 
engraving, under \vhose auspices contemporary pic- 
tures were sometimes transformed into real master- 
pieces, it cannot be said to have been unfavourable. 

When Lebrun was called to the government of 
the arts, the number of practical engravers in France 
was already considerable. Jean Pesne, the special 
interpreter of Poussin, had published several of those 
vigorous prints which even now shed honour on 
the name of the engraver of the " r^vanouissement 

Vitet : ** Eustache Lesueur." 


d'Esther," of the " Testament d'Eudamidas/' and of 

w o 

. o 


the "Sept Sacraments." Claudine Bouzonnet, sir^ 


named Claudia Stella, who by the force of her extra- 
ordinary gift has won her way to the highest rank 
among female engravers, £tienne Baudet, and Gan- 
trel — all these, like Jean Pesne, applied themselves 
almost exclusively to the task of reproducing the 
compositions of the noble painter of Les Andelys. On 
the other hand, Francois de Poilly, Roullet, and 
Masson (the last so celebrated for his portrait of 
Count d'Harcourt, and his " Pilgrims of Emmaus," after 
Titian), and many others eqyally well known, had 
won their spurs before they devoted themselves to the 
reproduction of Lebrun. Finally, Nanteuil, who only 
engraved a few portraits from originals by the director, 
was already widely known when Colbert requested him 
to join, among the first, the brotherhood which he 
had founded at the Gobelins, As soon as in his turn 
Edelinck was admitted, he hastened to profit by the 
advice of the master whom it was his privilege to be 
associated with ; and, aided by Nanteuil's example, 
and under Nanteuil's eye, he soon tried his hand in 
the production of engraved portraits. 

No one indeed could be better fitted than Nanteuil 
to teach this special art, in which he has had few 
rivals and no superior. Even now, when we consider 
these admirable portraits of his, we are as certain of 
the likeness as if we had known the sitters. Every- 
body's expression is so clearly defined, the character 
of his physiognomy so accurately portrayed, that it 
is impossible to doubt the absolute truth of the repre- 
sentation. There is no touch of picturesque affecta- 
tion in the details ; no exaggerated nicety of means ; 


no trick, nor mannerism of any sort ; but always 
clear and limpid workmanship, and style so reticent, 
so measured, that at first glance there is a certain 
indescribable appearance of coldness, no hindrance to 
persons of taste, but a pitfall to such eager and hasty 
judgments as, to be conquered, must be carried by 
storm. Nanteuil's portraits come before us in all the 
outward calm of nature; possibly they seem almost 
inartistic because they make no parade of artifice ; 
but, once examined with attention, they discover that 
highest and rarest form of merit which is concealed 
under an appearance of simplicity. 

If the " Turenne," the " President de Bellievre/' 
the " Van Steenberghen " (called the " Avocat de 
Hollande "), the " Pierre de Maridat," the " Lamothe 
Le Vayer," the " Loret," and others, are masterpieces 
of refinement in expression and drawing, they also 
prove, as regards execution, the exquisite taste and 
the marvellous dexterity of the engraver. But to 
discern the variety of method they display, and to 
perceive that the handling is as sure and fertile as it 
is learned and unpretentious, they must be closely 

As a rule, Nanteuil employs in his half-lights dots 
arranged at varying distances, according to the force 
of colouring required, in combination with short 
strokes of exceeding fineness. Sometimes — as, for 
instance, in the " Christine de Suede," altogether 
engraved in this manner — the process suffices him 
not only to model such parts as verge upon his lights, 
but even to construct the masses of his shadows. 


The " Edouard Mole " is, on the contrary, in pure 
Hne. The soft silkiness of hair he often expresses by- 
free and flowing lines, some of which, breaking away 
from the principal mass, are relieved against the 
background, breaking the monotony of the work- 
manship, and suggesting movement by their vague- 
ness of contour. Often, too, certain loose lines, either 
broken or continued without crossing in different 
directions, admirably distinguish the natures of cer- 
tain substances, and imitate* to perfection the soft 
richness of furs or the sheen of satin. Yet it some- 
times happens that in the master's hand the same 
method results in the most opposite effects : a print, 
for instance, may exemplify in its treatment of the 
textures of flesh a method applied elsewhere, and 
with equal success, to the rendering of draperies. In 
a word, Nanteuil does not appropriate any particular 
process to any predetermined purpose. While judi- 
ciously subordinating each to propriety, he can, when 
he pleases, make the most of all ; and whatever path 
he follows, it always appears that he has taken the 
best to reach his end. 

It was not only to the teaching of Nanteuil that 
Edelinck had recourse ; he still further improved his 
style by studying his countryman, Nicolas Pitau 
(whom Colbert had also summoned from Antwerp to 
the Gobelins), and afterwards by acquiring the secret 
of brilliant handling from Francois de Poilly. To 
which of these engravers he was most indebted 
is a point which cannot be exactly determined. 
After investing himself with qualities^from each, he 


did not imitate one more than another ; he found his 
inspiration in the examples of all three. 

Nanteuil and Edelinck, first united by their work, 
were soon fast friends, in spite of the difference of 
their ages, and the still greater difference of their 
tastes. The French engraver sent for his wife from 
Rheims as soon as he found himself in a fair way to 
success and fortune ; but he had also in some degree 
returned to the habits of his youth. A shining light 
in society, and as intimate with the cultured set at 
Mile, de Scudery's as with the devotees of pleasures 
less strictly intellectual, his career of dissipation in the 
salons and fashionable taverns of the day contrasts 
strangely with the sober quality of his talent, and 
increases our surprise at the number of works which 
he produced. Even his declining health did not 
change his habits. Till the end he continued to 
divide his time between his work and the world ; and 
at his death, in 1678, at the age of fifty-two, he left 
nothing, or almost nothing, to his wife, in spite of the 
large sums he had made since he came to Paris. 

Edelinck's fate was very different. He lived in 
seclusion, given over to his art and to the one ambition 
of becoming churchwarden {inargiiillicr) of his parish : 
a position refused him, it is said, as reserved for trades- 
men and official personages, and with which he was only 
at length invested by the condescending interference 
of the king. It was probably the only favour person- 
ally solicited by Edelinck, but it was by no means the 
first he owed to the protection of Louis XIV. Before 
the churchwardenship he held the title of " Premier 


Dessinateur du Cabinet." Like Lebrun, like Man- 

FlG. 84. — JKAN I'ESNE. 
Nicolas Poussin. 

sart and Le Notre, he was a Knight of St. Michael, 



and the Academy of Painting elected him as one of 
its council. His old age, like the rest of his days, was 
quiet and laborious; and when he died (1707) his 
two brothers and his son Nicolas, who had all three 
been his pupils, inherited a fortune as wisely hus- 
banded as it had been honourably acquired. 

Edelinck survived the principal engravers of the 
reign of Louis XIV. Fran9ois de Poilly, Roullet, 
Masson, and Jean Pesne, had more or less closely 
followed Nanteuil to the grave. At the Gobelins, 
once so rich in ability of the first order, students had 
taken the place of masters, and clever craftsmen suc- 
ceeded to artists of genuine inspiration. Van Schup- 
pen had followed Nanteuil, as Mignard had Lebrun, 
from necessity rather than right. And last of all, 
Gerard Audran, the most distinguished engraver of the 
time — whom, for the sake of clearness in our narra- 
tive, we have not yet mentioned — had died in 1703; 
and though members of his family did honour to the 
name he had distinguished, none of them were able 
to sustain the full weight of its glory. 

One would hardly venture to say that Gerard 
Audran was an engraver of genius, because it does 
not seem permissible to apply the term to one whose 
business it is to interpret the creations of others, and 
subordinate himself to models he has not himself de- 
signed ; yet how else can one characterise a talent so 
full of life, so startling a capacity for feeling, and a 
method at once so large, so unstudied, and so original? 
Do not the plates of Gerard Audran bear witness 
, to something more than mere superficial skill ? Do 


j«^ri..;i-^ii- '-':'"»—' 

Fig. 85. — g£rard audran. 
• La Noblesse." After Raphael. 

N 2 


they not rather reveal qualities more subtle — a 
something personal and living, which raises them 
to the rank of imaginative work ? Their real fault, 
perhaps — at least the fault of those after Lebrun 
or Mignard — is that they are not reproductions of 
a purer type of beauty. And even these masters 
are so far dignified by the creative touch of their 
translator as almost to seem worthy of unreserved 
admiration. We can understand the mistake of the 
Italians, who- thought, when they saw the " Batailles 
d'Alexandre," in black and white, that France, too, 
had her Raphael, when, in reality, allowing, for dif- 
ference of manner, she could only glory in another 
Marc Antonio. 

Gerard Audran was born in Lyons in 1640, and 
there obtained from his father his first lessons in art. 
Afterwards he went to Paris, and placed himself 
under the most famous masters of the day, by whose aid 
he was soon introduced to Lebrun, and at once com- 
missioned to engrave one of Raphael's compositions. 
When Audran undertook the work, he had not the 
picture before him, as Edelinck had when he engraved 
the " Vierge de Francois L" His original was only a 
pencil copy which Lebrun had brought back from 
Italy ; hence no doubt the modern character and the 
French style which are stamped on the engraving. 
Feeling dissatisfied with his work, the young artist 
did not publish it, but determined to study the 
Italians in Italy, to educate himself directly from 
their works, and thenceforth to engrave only those 
pictures of which he could judge at first-hand without 

Fig. 86. — g6rard audran. 
"Navigation." After Raphael. 


the danger of an intermediary. He set off therefore 
for Rome, and remained there for three years, during 
which time he produced several copies painted at the 
Vatican, many drawings from the antique, several 
plates after Raphael, Domenichino, and the Carraccis, 
and the engraving of a ceiling by Pietro da Cortona, 
which last he dedicated to Colbert. 

By this act of homage he acquitted himself of a 
debt of gratitude to the minister who had favoured 
him ever since his arrival in Paris, and who, at 
Lebrun's request, had supplied the means of his 
sojourn in Italy. On Colbert's part it was only an 
act of justice to recall Audran to PVance, and to 
entrust him with the engraving of the lately finished 
series of the " Batailles d'Alexandre," for the great 
publication called the " Cabinet du Roi." To the 
engraver, then twenty-seven years old, a pension was 
granted, with a studio at the Gobelins, then the cus- 
tomary reward of talents brilliantly displayed. It 
may be added that six years (1672 — 1678) sufficed 
him to finish the stupendous task. 

Treated as a friend, and almost on an equal foot- 
ing, by Lebrun, who for no one else departed from the 
routine of his official supremacy, Audran exerted 
over the king's chief painter a considerable, if a secret, 
influence. In spite of all that has been said,* Lebrun 

* It is said that Lebrun one day proclaimed that Audran had "im- 
proved his pictures." It is possible he may have said, *' that he had 
not spoilt them." Such an expression in the mouth of such a man 
is quite modest enough ; but it is difficult to imagine Lebrun so far 
humbling himself in public. 


was not the kind of man to openly question his own 
infalHbiHty, nor to advertise his deference to the 
advice of an artist so much younger than himself, 
his pupil, so to speak, and consequently without the 
authority of any higher degree ; yet he frequently 
consulted him, and took his advice, in private. Also 
(and this is significant) when the engravings of the 
" Batailles " appeared — engravings to a certain extent 
unfaithful, inasmuch as they differed decidedly from 
the originals — the fact that the painter made no 
complaint points to his recognition in Audran of the 
right to correct, and to his implicit submission to 
Audran's corrections. 

In this respect Lebrun conducted himself as a 
man of the world, and one well able to understand 
the true interests of his reputation. He had every- 
thing to gain by giving full liberty to an engraver 
by whose perfect taste the blunders of his own were 
corrected, and who harmonised his frequently harsh 
and heavy colouring, and strengthened in modelling 
and design his often undecided expression of form. 
Thus the plates of the " Batailles," in addition to the 
high quality of the composition of the originals, pre- 
sent, alike in general aspect and in detail, a decision 
which belongs to Audran alone. Force and trans- 
parency of tone, largeness of effect, and, above all, a 
distinctly marked feeling for characteristic truths, are 
conspicuous in them. Not a single condition of art 
is imperfectly fulfilled. Marc Antonio himself drew 
with no more certainty ; the Flemings themselves 
had no deeper knowledge of chiaroscuro; the_ French 


engravers, not excepting even Edelinck,"^ have never 
treated historical engraving with such ease and 
mdestria. In a word, none of the most famous en- 
gravers of Europe have been, we believe, so richly 
endowed with all artistic instincts, nor have better 
understood their use. 

The "Batailles d'Alexandre" finished, Audran 
engraved Lesueur's " Martyre de Saint Protais ; " 
several Poussins, amongst others the " Pyrrhus Sauve," 
the " Femme Adultere," and the radiant " Triomphe 
de la Verite," one of the most beautiful (if not the 
most beautiful) historical engravings ever published ; 
and, after Mignard, the " Peste d'£gine," and the 
paintings in the cupola at Val-de-Grace. 

These several works, where elevation of taste and 
sentiment are no less triumphantly manifest than in 
the " Batailles " themselves, are also finished exam- 
ples of engraving in the literal sense of the word. 
Audran disdained to flaunt his skill, and to surprise 
the eye by technical display, but he understood to 
the utmost all the secrets and resources of the craft, 
and employed them with more ability than any 
competitor. Associating engraving with etching, he 
deepened with powerful touches of the burin those 
strokes of the needle which had merely served to 
suggest outlines, masses of shadow, and half-tints. 
On occasion, short strokes, free as a pencil's, and 

* We said that Edelinck was born at Antwerp ; but as he was very 
young when he took up his abode in France, and as he never returned 
to his native country, we may be allowed to include him in the French 
school wuth as much right as his countryman, Philippe de Champaigne. 


seemingly drawn at random, with dots of different 
sizes, distributed with apparent carelessness, sufficed 
for the modelling of his forms ; at others, he pro- 
ceeded by a consistent system of cross-hatching. 
Here rough etching w^ork is tumbled about (so to 
speak) in wild disorder ; there a contrary effect is 
produced by nearly parallel furrow^s scooped in the 
metal wnth methodical exactness ; but everywhere the 
choice and progress of the tools are based on condi- 
tions inherent in the nature of the several objects, 
and their relative positions and distances. Audran 
did not try to attract attention to any of the methods 
he employed ; he made each heighten the effect of the 
other, and combined them all without parade of ease, 
and yet without confusion. 

So many admirable works secured for Audran 
a fame such as Edelinck, as Nanteuil himself, had 
never obtained. The Academy of Painting, which 
had welcomed him after the publication of his first 
plates, elected him as one of its council in 1681. The 
school of engraving which he opened grew larger than 
any other, and many of his pupils became notable 
even in his company, and helped to increase the 
renown of the master who had trained them.^ 

Towards the close of his life Audran laid by 
the burin for the pen. Following Albert Durer's 

* Amongst Audran's most distinguished scholars, we need only 
mention the following names : Gaspard Duchange ; Dorigny, sum- 
moned to London Uy Queen Anne ; Louis Desplaces ; and Nicolas 
Henri Tardieu, founder of a family of clever engravers, the last of 
whom died in 1844, worthy of the name he bore. 


example, he proposed to put together, in the form 
of treatises, his life-long observations on the art he 
had so successfully practised. Unfortunately, this 
task was interrupted by his death ; and, excepting a 
" Recueil des Proportions du Corps Humain," nothing 
is left us of those teachings which the greatest en- 
graver, not only of France, but perhaps of any school, 
had desired to hand on to posterity. 

By their works, Nanteuil, Audran, and the other 
masters of the reign of Louis XIV., had popularised 
historical and portrait engraving in France. The 
taste for prints spread more and more, and amateurs 
began to make collections. At first they confined 
themselves to real masterpieces ; after which they 
began to covet the complete achievement of peculiar 
engravers. The mania for rare prints became fashion- 
able ; and we learn from La Bruyere that, before the 
end of the century, some amateurs had already come 
to prefer engravings "presque pas tirees" — engravings 
" fitter to decorate the Petit-Pont or the Rue Neuve 
on a holiday than to be hoarded in a collection " — to 
the most perfect specimens of the art. Others were 
chiefly occupied with the bulk of their collections, and 
treasured up confused heaps of all sorts of plates, 
good, bad, and indifferent. Others there were who 
only cared about such as did not exceed a certain 
size ; and it is told of one devotee of this faith that, 
inasmuch as he would harbour nothing in his portfolios 
but round engravings of exactly the same circumfer- 
ence, he was used to cut ruthlessly to his pattern what- 
ever came into his hands. We must add that, side by 


side with such maniacs, intelligent men like the Abbe 
de Marolles and the Marquis de Beringhen increased 
their collections to good purpose, and were content 
to bring together the most important specimens of 
ancient engraving and such as best served to illus- 
trate the more modern progress of the art. 

In France, however, it was not only the best ex- 
pressions of engraving that were considered. On the 
heels of the great engravers there followed a crowd 
of second-rate workmen. Besides history and por- 
trait, every variety of print was" published : domestic 
scenes, architecture and topography, costumes, fetes, 
and public celebrations. The engraving of maps 
greatly improved under the direction of Adrian and 
Guillaume Sanson, sons of the famous Geographer in 
Ordinary to Louis XIII. 

Jacques Gomboust, the king's Engineer in Ordi- 
nary for the " drawing up of plans of towns," pub- 
lished, as early as 1652, a map of Paris and its suburbs 
in nine sheets, much more exact and more carefully 
engraved than those of former reigns. Fashion plates 
were multiplied ad mfinittim ; and a periodical called 
Le Merciire Galant steadily produced new modes 
in apparel and personal ornaments. Certain collec- 
tions also, destined to perpetuate the remembrance 
of the events of the reign, or the personal actions of 
the king, were published " by order, and at the expense 
of His Majesty," with a luxury justified at any rate 
by the importance of the artists participating in the 
work. The very almanacs bear the stamp of talent, 
and arc not unfrequently inscribed with the names 


of celebrated engravers, such as Lepautre, Francois 
Spierre, Chauveau, Sebastien Leclerc, and De Poilly. 

In the days of Henri IV. and Louis XIII. almanacs 
were printed on a single sheet, with a border some- 
times of allegorical figures, but, more often, composed 
simply of the attributes of the seasons. It was under 
Louis XIV. that they at first appeared on larger 
paper, and then in several sheets, wherein were repre- 
sented the most important events of the year, or, it 
might be, some ceremony or court fete. In one is 
pictured the Battle of Senef, or the signing of the 
Treaty of Nimeguen ; in another, perhaps, the king is 
represented dancing the Strasbourg minuet, or offer- 
ing a collation to ladies. Of course the majority 
of these prints are valueless in point of execution, 
and are, moreover, of an almost purely commercial 
character ; but those which are poorest from an 
artistic point of view are still worthy of interest, since 
they afford indisputable information concerning the 
people and the habits and manners of the time. 

Whilst many French artists were devoting them- 
selves to the engraving of subjects of manners or 
domestic scenes, or to the illustration of books and 
almanacs, others were making satirical sketches of 
current events and popular persons. The engraving 
of caricatures, though it only dates from the middle 
of the seventeenth century, had been practised long 
before in France and other countries. 

To say nothing of the " Danses macabres," a sort 
of religious, or at any rate philosophical, satire, we 
might mention certain caricatures published even 


before the Carracci in Italy ; in the Low Countries in 
the time of Jerome Bosch and Breughel ; in Germany 
in the reign of Maximilian II. ; and finally in France, 
in the reign of Charles IX. But all these are either 
as stupidly licentious as those afterwards made upon 
Henri III. and his courtiers, or as heavily grotesque 
as those of the time of the League, towards the end of 
the reign of Henri IV. 

When Louis XIII. came to the throne, the wit ot 
the caricaturists was little keener, if we may judge by 
the coarse pictorial lazzi inspired by the disgrace and 
death of the Marechal d'Ancre, and the Dutch and 
Spanish prints designed in ridicule of the French ; but 
some years later, when Callot had introduced into the 
treatment of burlesque a keenness and delicacy which 
it could hardly have been expected to attain, the comic 
prints assumed under the burin of certain engravers 
an appearance of greater ingenuity and less brutality. 

It is needless to remark that at the beginning of 
the reign of Louis XIV. — indeed, during the whole 
time of the Fronde and the foreign occupation of a 
part of French territory — it was Mazarin and the 
Spaniards who came in for all the epigrams. In the 
caricatures of the day the Spaniards were invariably 
represented with enormous ruffs, in tatters superbly 
worn, and, to complete the allusion to their poverty, 
with bunches of beetroot and onions at their belts. 
There is nothing particularly comic, nor especially re- 
fined, in the execution of the prints. In piquancy and 
truth, these jokes about Spanish manners and Spanish 
food recall those presently to be made in England 


about Frenchmen, who are there Invariably represented 
as frog-eaters and dancing-masters. Yet comparing the 
facetics of that period with the exaggerated or obscene 
humours which preceded them, it seems as though 
the domain of caricature were even then being opened 
up to worthy precursors of the lively draughtsmen of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries : in fact, as 
though some Attic salt were already penetrating to 

This advance is visible in the satires published 
towards the end of the reign of Louis XIV. The 
" Procession Monacale," a set of twenty-four engravings 
which appeared in Holland (where many Protestants 
had taken refuge), attacked with considerable vigour 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and the prin- 
cipal persons who had participated in that measure. 
Louvois, Mme. de Maintenon^ and all the privy 
councillors of Louis XIV., are represented under the 
cowl, and with significant attributes. Even the king 
figures in this series of heroes of the New League ; 
he is in a monk's frock like the others, but a sun, 
in allusion to his lofty device, serves for his face, 
and this hooded Phoebus bears in his hand a torch 
to light himself through the surrounding darkness. 
The prints that make up this set, as well as many 
more in the same style, are designed and engraved 
with a certain amount of spirit. They serve to prove 
that in the frivolous arts, as well as in the comic 
literature of the day, the object was to make " decent 
folk " laugh, and to keep joking within bounds. 
In a word, in comparison with former caricatures, 


they are as the vaudevilles of the Italian comedy to 
the farces once played on the boards of strolling 

Every sort of engraving being cultivated in France 
with more success than anywhere else, under Louis 
XIV. the trade in prints became one of the most 
flourishing branches of French industry. The great 
historical plates, it is true — those at any rate which, 
like the " Batailles d'Alexandre," were published at 
the king's cost — were chiefly sold in France, and 
were not often exported, save as presents to sovereigns 
and ambassadors. But portraits, domestic scenes, 
and fashion plates, were shipped off in thousands, 
and flooded all parts of Europe. Before the second 
half of the seventeenth century, the chief printsellers 
(for the most part engravers themselves and pub- 
lishers of their own works) were established in Paris 
on the Quai de I'Horloge, or, like Abraham Bosse, 
in the interior of the Palace. Rather later than 
this, the most popular shops were to be found in 
the neighbourhood of the Church of St. Severin. 
If we examine the prints then published in Paris, 
we may count as many as thirty publishers living 
in the Rue St. Jacques alone, and amongst the 
number are many famous names : as Gerard Audran, 
" at the sign of the Two Golden Pillars ; " Fran- 
cois de Poilly, " at the sign of St. Benedict," and so 

Hence, we may mention, in passing, the mistake 
which attributes to engravers of the greatest talent 
the production of bad plates, to which they would 


never have put finger except to take proofs. For 
instance, the words '^Gerard Atidran excudit" to be 
found at the bottom of many such, do not mean 
that they were engraved by the master, but only pub- 
Hshed by him. Often, too, pseudonyms — not ahvays 
in the best possible taste — concealed the name of 
the publisher and the place of publication : a precau- 
tion easily understood, as it was generally applied to 
obscenities, and particularly to those called " pieces a 
surprise," which were then becoming common, and 
continued to increase indefinitely during the following 
century. True art, however, is but little concerned 
with such curiosities ; and it is best to look elsewhere 
for its manifestations. 

The superior merit of the engraving of the masters 
of the French school had attracted numbers of foreign 
artists to Paris. Many took root there, amongst 
them Van Schuppen and the Flemings commis- 
sioned to engrave the '* Victoires du Roi," painted by 
Van der Meulen ; others, having finished their course 
of study, returned to their own countries^ the mis- 
sionaries of French doctrine and of French manner. 
The result of this united influence was an almost 
exact similarity in all the line engravings produced, 
by men of whatever nationality, or from whatever 
originals. Thus, the portraits engraved by the Ger- 
man Johann Hainzelmann from Ulrich Mayer and 
Joachim Sandrart, scarcely differ from those he had 
formerly engraved from French artists : the " Michel 
Le Tellier,^' for instance, and the " President Dufour." 
The historical plates published about the same time 


in Germany prove the same lively zeal in imitation. 
In them art appears as, so to speak, a French sub- 
ject; and Gustave Ambling, Bartholomew Kilian,^ 
and many more of their countrymen — pupils, like these 
two, of Francois de Poilly — might be classed amongst 
the engravers of the French school, if the style of their 
work were the only thing to be considered. 

An examination of the prints published by 
Flemish and Dutch artists later than the school of 
Rubens and Van Dalen, would justify a like observa- 
tion. We may fairly regard Van Schuppen only as a 
clever pupil of Nanteuil, and Cornelius Vermeulen as 
an imitator, less successful, but no less subservient. 
And when we turn to the Italian engravers of the 
seventeenth century, we find that, as a rule, their 
work is marked by so impersonal a physiognomy, 
is so much the outcome of certain preconceived and 
rigid conventions, that one could almost believe them 
inspired by the same mind, and done by the same 

Whilst French influence reigned almost supreme 
in Germany and the Low Countries, and Italian art 
became more and more the slave of routine, English 
engraving had not yet begun to feel the influence 
of the progress elsewhere achieved since the. begin- 
ning of the century. The time was, however, at hand 
when, in the reign of Louis XV., London engravers 

• Engraver of the ** Assumption " of Philippe de Champaigne. He 
must not be confused with another Bartholomew Kilian, his ancestor, 
and the head of a family in which there are no less than twenty 


who came to study in Paris should return to their 
own country to practise successfully the lessons they 
had learned. We must, therefore, presently turn to 
them ; but, before speaking of the pupils, we must 
briefly mention the achievements of the masters, and 
narrate the story of French engraving in France after 
the death of the excellent artists of the age of 
Louis XIV. 




MORIN, Nanteuil, Masson, and the other portrait 
engravers of the period, in spite of the variety of 
their talent, left their immediate successors a similar 
body of doctrine and a common tradition. Now the 
works of the painter Rigaud, whose importance had 
considerably increased towards the end of the reign 
of Louis XIV., made certain modifications of this 
severe tradition necessary on the part of the artists 
employed to engrave them. Portraits, for the most 
part bust portraits, relieved against an almost naked 
background, were no longer in fashion. To render a 
crowd of accessories which, while enriching the com- 
position, frequently encumbered it beyond measure, 
became the problern in engraving. It was success- 
fully solved by Pierre Drevet, his son Pierre Imbert, 
and his nephew Claude Drevet, this last the author, 
amongst other plates now much prized, of a " Guil- 
laume de Vintimille" and a "Count Zinzendorff." 

The first of these three engravers — at Lyons the 

pupil of Germain Audran, and at Paris of Antoine 

Masson — engraved, with some few exceptions, only 

portraits, the best known of which are a full-length 

O 2 


" Louis XIV.," " Louis XV. as a Child," " Cardinal 
Fleury," and " Count Toulouse ; " they attest an 
extreme skill of .hand, and a keen perception of 
the special characteristics of the originals. The 
second, the similarity of whose Christian name has 
often caused him to be mistaken for his father, showed 
himself from the first still more skilful and more 
certain of his own powers. He was only twenty-six 
when he finished his full-length " Bossuet," in which 
the precision of the handling, the exactness and 
brilliancy of the burin work, seem to indicate a talent 
already arrived at maturity. In this plate, indeed, 
and in some others by the same engraver — as the 
" Cardinal Dubois," the " Adrienne Lecouvreur," and 
others — there are parts, perhaps, that seem almost 
worthy of Nanteuil himself It is impossible to 
imitate with greater nicety the richness of ermine, the 
delicacy of lace, and the polish and brilliancy of 
gilding ; but the subtle delicacy of physiognomy, the 
elasticity of living flesh which animated the portraits 
of the earlier masters, will here be looked for in vain. 
Such work is the outcome of an art no longer 
supreme, albeit of a very high order still. 

As much may be said of the best historical plates 
engraved in France under the Regency, and in the 
first years of Louis XV. The older manner, it is 
true, was still perceptible, but it was beginning to 
change, and was soon to be concealed more and 
more under a parade of craftsmanship amusingly 
self-conscious, and an elegance refined to the point of 

Fig. 87. — LAURENT CARS. 
•*L'Avare." From Boucher's " Moli^re." 


The French engravers of the time of Louis XV. 
may be divided into two distinct groups : the one 
submitting to the authority of Rigaud, and partially 
preserving the tradition of the last century ; the 
other, of greater numerical importance, and in some 
respects of greater ability, but, in imitation of Wat- 
teau and his followers, seeking success in attractive- 
ness of subject, grace of handhng, and the expression 
of a general prettiness, rather than in the faithful 
rendering of truth. 

As we know, the manners of the time were not 
calculated to discourage a like tendency, which, in- 
deed, grew more and more general amongst artists 
during the whole course of the eighteenth century, 
until it ended in a revolution, as radical in its way as 
the great political one : namely, the exclusive worship 
of a somewhat barren simplicity and of the antique 
narrowly understood. 

In 1750 (that is to say, almost at the very time of 
the birth of David, the future reformer of the school) 
the public asked nothing more of art than a passing 
amusement. The immediate successors of Lebrun 
had brought the historical style into great disrepute. 
People had wearied of the pompous parade of allegory, 
the tyranny of splendour, the monotony of luxury ; 
they took refuge in another extreme — in the exag- 
geration of grace and all the coquetries of sentiment. 
Pastorals, or would-be pastorals, and subjects for 
the most part mythological, took the place of heroic 
actions and academical apotheoses. They had not a 
whit more nature than these others, but they had at 

Fig. 88.— LAURENT cars. 
" Le Dipit Amoureux." From Boucher's "Moliire." 


any rate more interest for the mind, and greater charm 
for the eye. 

From the point of view of engraving alone, the 
prints published in France at this time are for the 
most part models of spirit and delicacy, as those 
of the Louis XIV. masters are of learned execu- 
tion and vigorous conception. Moreover, under the 
frivolous forms affected by French engraving in the 
eighteenth century, something not unfrequently sur- 
vives of the masterly skill and science of the older 
men. It is to be supposed that Laurent Cars remem- 
bered the example of Gerard Audran, and, in his own 
way, succeeded in perpetuating it when he engraved 
Lemoyne's " Hercule et Omphale," and *' Delivrance 
d'Andromede." Even when he was reproducing such 
fantasies as the " Fete venitienne " of Watteau, or 
scenes of plain family life, like Chardin's "Amuse- 
ments de la Vie privee," and *' La Serinette," he had 
the art of supplementing from his own taste whatever 
strength and dignity his originals might lack. Was 
it not, too, by appropriating the doctrine, or at least 
the method, of Audran — his free alliance of the burin 
with the needle — that Nicolas de Larmessin, Lebas, 
Lepicie, Aveline, Duflos, Dupuis, and others, produced 
their charming transcripts of Pater, Lancret, Boucher 
himself — in spite of his impertinences of manner and 
his unpleasant falseness of colour — and, above all, 
Watteau, of all the masters of the eighteenth century 
the best understood and the most brilliantly inter- 
pretated by the engravers ? A while later, Greuze 
had the honour to occupy them most ; and some 


among them, as Lcvasseiir and FHpart, did not fail 

Fig. 89.— chedel. 
"Arlequin Jaloux." After Walleau. 

to acquit themselves with ability of a task rendered 


peculiarly difficult by the flaccid and laboured execu- 
tion of the originals. 

However summary our description of the progress 
of French engraving during the whole of the reign of 
Louis XV., or the early years of Louis XVI., it is 
scarcely possible not to mention, side by side with 
historical and genre engraving, the countless illustra- 
tions — of novels, fables, songs, and publications of every 
description — the general aspect of which so strongly 
bears witness to the fertility and grace of French art 
at that time. It is difficult to omit the names of 
those agreeable engravers of dainty subjects, not 
seldom of their own design : those poetcB minoi^es, the 
vaudevillists of the burin, who, from the interpreters 
of Gravclot, Eisen, and Gabriel de St. Aubin to 
Choffard, from Cochin to Moreau, have left us so 
much work steeped in the richest, the most varied 
imagination, or informed by an exquisite natural 
perception. Ready and ingenious above all others, 
delicate even in their most capricious flights, witty 
before everything, they are artists whose accomplish- 
ment, in spite of its appearance of frivolity, is not to 
be matched for delicacy and science in the work of 
any other epoch, or the school of any other country. 

Placed, in some sort, at an equal distance from 
the contemporary historical engravers and the en- 
gravers of illustrations, and divided, as it were, between 
the recollections of the past and the examples of the 
present, Ficquet, and some years later, Augustin de 
St. Aubin, produced the little portraits which are as 
popular now as then. The portraits of Ficquet are 


prized above all ; though those of St. Aubin, in spite 

Fig, 90.— cochin. 
La Main Chaude." After De Troy. 

of their small size, exhibit a largeness and firmness of 


modelling not to be found in work that is sometimes 
preferred to them. What is more, Ficquet's plates 
are generally only reductions of prints already pub- 
lished by other engravers, Nanteuil, Edelinck, and 
the rest ; whilst the portraits of St. Aubin have the 
merit of being directly taken from original pictures 
or drawings. As a rule, however, these portraits are 
relieved on a dead black ground, without gradation 
or variety of effect ; and it is probably to the some- 
what harsh and monotonous aspect thus produced 
that we must attribute the comparative disfavour with 
which they are regarded. 

It is also permissible to suppose that Fi'cquet's 
almost microscopic prints, like those of his imi- 
tators^ Savart and Grateloup, owe much of their 
popularity to their extreme finish. When the mind 
is not exercised in discerning the essential parts of an 
art, the eye is apt to look upon excessive neatness of 
workmanship as the certain evidence of perfection. 
As people insensible to the charm of painting fall 
confidingly into raptures over the pictures of Carlo 
Dolci, Gerard Dow, and Denner, so, it may be, certain 
admirers of Ficquet esteem his talent in proportion 
to the exaggerated cleanness and carefulness of his 
plates. Yet his real merit does not entirely rest on 
such secondary considerations. Many of his small 
portraits, most of them intended as illustrations, are 
remarkable for firm drawing and delicate facial ex- 
pression ; and if the work were generally simpler and 
less crowded with half-tints, it might be classed, as 
miniature in line, with Petitot's enamels. 

^Jui/ »»tU</^;^4fr,.i VJi ijO'o 

Unincftar^'hi^ \i''AMlin 

Fig. 91. — AUGUSTIN de st. aubin. 
Rameau. After Caffieri. 


The analogy, however, can only be supported with 
regard to their talent ; their dispositions differ in 
every point.. The painter Petitot, a fervent Calvinist, 
whose life presents a curious contrast with the worldly 
character of his work, had the honour to attract the 
attention of Bossuet, who, it is said, attempted to 
convert him. He was imprisoned at For-l'Eveque 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and only 
quitted it to devote himself to solitude and study. 
Ficquet, for his part, took no interest whatever in 
religious questions, and gave up every spare moment 
to the pursuit of pleasure ; he was, besides, for ever 
short of money, and was perpetually hunted by his 
creditors, who, weary of struggling, usually ended by 
installing him in their own houses to finish a plate 
for them. 

It was in this way that he came to spend 
nearly two months at St. Cyr, in the very heart 
of which community he engraved his " Mme. de 
Maintenon," after Mignard. This portrait, paid for 
long previously to the last farthing, made no progress 
whatever ; and the Mother Superior, having exhausted 
prayers and reproaches, and despairing of seeing it 
finished, addressed herself to the metropolitan. From 
him she obtained permission to introduce the artist 
into the convent, and to keep him there till the 
accomplishment of his task. But things went on 
no better. Ficquet, bored to death in his seclusion, 
simply slept out the time, and never touched his 
graver. One day he sent for the Superior, and told 
her that if he stayed at St. Cyr to all eternity, he 


could not work in the solitude they had made for 
him ; amusement he must and would have, and in 
default of better, it must be the conversation of the 
nuns ; he added, in a word, that he refused to finish 
the portrait unless some of them came every day to 
keep him company. His conditions were accepted ; 
and to encourage him still further, some of the pupils 
accompanied the nuns, and played and sang to him 
in his room. At length the long-expected plate was 
ready ; but Ficquet, disgusted with' the work, de- 
stroyed it, and would only consent to begin again on 
the promise of instant liberty and a still larger sum. 
By these means the nuns of St. Cyr at last became 
possessed of the likeness of their foundress, and 
the little " Mme. de Maintenon " — which is perhaps 
Ficquet's masterpiece — made up to them for the 
strange exactions with which they had had to 

As the habit of employing etching in the execu- 
tion of their works had gained ground among artists, 
the temptation to have recourse to this speedy process 
had vanquished one person after another, even those 
who seemed least likely to yield, whether from their 
position in society, or their former methods. There were 
soon as many amateur as professional engravers ; and 
learning the use of the needle well enough to sketch a 
pastoral was soon as fashionable as turning a madrigal. 
Among the first to set the example was the Regent ; 
he engraved a set of illustrations for an edition of 
" Daphnis ct Chloe," and his initiative was followed 
by crowds of all ranks : great lords like the Due de 


Chevreuse and the Marquis de Coigny ; gentlemen of 
the gown, Hke the President de Gravelle ; financiers, 
scholars, and men of letters, like Watelet, Count 
Caylus, and D'Argenville."^ Court ladies and the 
wives of plain citizens joined the throng ; from the 
Duchesse de Luynes and the Queen herself, to Mme. 
de Pompadour and Mme. Reboul (who afterwards 
married the painter Vien), there were scores of women 
who amused themselves by engraving, to say nothing 
of the many who made it a profession. 

The drawback of such pastimes, innocent enough 
in themselves, was that they degraded art into a 
frivolous amusement, and promulgated a false view 
of its capabilities and real object. This is what 
very generally happens when, on the strength of 
a certain degree of taste, mistaken for talent, people 
aspire to compass, without reflection or study, results 
only to be attained by knowledge and experience. 
The authors of such hasty work think art easy, 
because they are ignorant of its essentials ; and the 
public, in its turn mistaken as to these, accepts 
appearances for reality, becomes accustomed to the 
pretence of merit, and loses all taste for true superiority. 
Every art may be thus perverted ; and in our own 
days, amateur water colours, statuettes, and waltzes 
are as injurious to painting, sculpture, and music, as, 

* Some of these little unpretentious amateur prints are not 
without charm ; some even show a certain amount of talent in the 
execution, and the portraits drawn and engraved by Carmontelle, the 
author of the " Proverbes," deserve, amongst others, to be mentioned 
on that account. 


in former days, the amusement of print-making was 
to engraving. 

Moreover, it was not art only that these prints 
began to injure. Prompted by gallantry, as under- 
stood by the younger Crebillon and Voisenon when 
they wrote their experiences, they often presented to 
the eyes of women scenes to the description of which 
they would not have listened : as a certain lady is re- 
ported to have asked Baron de Besenval, during the 
relation of an embarrassing adventure, to " draw a pic- 
ture-puzzle of what he couldn't tell her." Often, how- 
ever, engraving, as practised in the salons, appealed to 
quite another order of passions and ideas. In support 
of the great cause of the day — philosophy — all weapons 
seemed fair, and the needle was used to disseminate 
the new evangel. When Mme. de Pompadour, in her 
little engraving, the proofs of which were fought for 
by her courtiers, attempted to show " The Genius of the 
Arts Protecting France," she set no very dangerous 
example, and only proved one thing — that the said 
Genius did not so carefully protect the kingdom as to 
exclude the possibility of platitude. But when the 
habitues of Mme. d'Epinay and D'Holbach set them- 
selves in their little prints to attack certain so-called 
mental superstitions, they unconsciously opened the 
door to people of a more radical turn of mind. Before 
the end of the century prints a good deal more crudely 
energetic appeared on the same subject ; and the pot- 
house engravers, in their turn, illustrated the Phe 
Duchene, as the drawing-room engravers had illustrated 
the " Essai sur les Moeurs " and the ** Encyclopedic." 


Although the engraving of illustrations, or at 
least " light " subjects, was, in the eighteenth century, 
almost the only sort practised in France, even by the 
most eminent artists, some of these imparted to their 
productions a severer significance, and an appearance 
more in harmony with that of former work. Several 
— pupils of Nicolas Henri Tardieu, or of Dupuis — 
resisted with much constancy the encroachment of 
the fashionable style, and passed on to their scholars 
of all nations those teachings they had received in 
their youth. The Germans, Joseph Wagner, Martin 
Preisler, Schmidt, John George Wille ; the Italian, 
Porporati ; the Spaniards, Carmona and Pascal 
Moles ; the Englishmen, Strange, Ingram, Ryland, 
and others, came, at close intervals, for instruction or 
improvement in this school. In Paris they published 
plates of various degrees of excellence ; but, in the 
greater part of these, the nationality and personal 
sentiment of their authors are obliterated in acquired 
habits of taste and handling. 

Willc's prints, for instance — those even which have 
most contributed to his fame, "Paternal Instruction," 
after Terburg, or the " Dutchwoman Knitting," after 
Mieris — might just as well, for anything one sees to the 
contrary, have been the work of a French engraver of 
the same period. They only differ from plates bearing 
the name of Beauvarlet or of DauUd in a certain 
Teutonic excess of coldness in the handling ; in a 
somewhat staid, and, as it were, metallic stiffness of 
arrangement. Carmona's " Francois Boucher," and his 
** Colin de Vermont," after Roslin, and Porporati's 

Fig. 92.— porporati. 
Susannah. After Santerre. 

P 2 


" Tancrede et Clorinde," after Carle Vanloo, have still 
less of the stamp of originality. 

Finally, with the exception of Ryland, by reason 
of the particular process he employed, and of which 
we shall presently have to speak — and especially of 
Strange, who has his own peculiar mode of feeling, 
and a sort of merit peculiar to himself — none of the 
English engravers trained in the French school fail 
to show the signs of close relationship. Engravers 
of more original talent must be looked for neither 
amongst historical nor portrait engravers, nor even 
amongst engravers of genre. For information as to 
the state of the art outside of France, and apart from 
the French school, we must rather turn to the illus- 
trations of books and almanacs engraved by Chodo- 
wiecki at Dantzic or Berlin, or to the vast plates from 
ancient Roman monuments etched — not without a 
certain rhetorical emphasis — by Piranesi. 

As for other second or third rate foreign engravers 
of the period, as for those ragioitevoli (as Vasari 
would have called them) whose work, if undeserving 
of oblivion, is likewise undeserving of attentive ex- 
amination, we shall have done our part if we men- 
tion certain amongst them : as J. Houbraken, who 
worked at Dordrecht ; Domenichino Cunego, of 
Rome ; Weirotter, of Vienna ; and Fernando Selma, 
of Madrid. 

Meanwhile, in France and other countries, by 
royal command, or at the expense of rich amateurs, 
important series of prints were being published in 
commemoration of public events, or in illustration of 

tup: eighteenth century. 229 

famous collections of painting and sculpture. The 
first of the latter order was the " Galerie de Versailles," 
begun by Charles Simoneau, continued by Masse, 
and only finished in 1752 after twenty-eight conse- 
cutive years of labour. It was speedily succeeded 
by the " Cabinet de Crozat " and the " Peintures de 
I'Hotel Lambert ; " and a little later the example of 
France was followed by other countries, and one after 
the other there appeared, in Italy, , Germany, and 
England, the " Museo Pio Clementino," the " Dresden 
Gallery," the catalogue of the Bruhl collection, and 
the publications of Boydell — all such magnificent 
works as do honour to the second half of the 
eighteenth century. Finally, thanks to Vivares and 
Balechou, the engraving of landscape began to rival 
historical engraving, to which it had before been 
considered as merely accessory. The honour or 
having created it belongs to the French. It is too 
often forgotten that they were the first to excel in 
it, and that but for the practice of Vivares, England 
to whom the merit of initiative is usually attributed 
might never have boasted of Woollett and his pupils. 
Since Claude Lorraine and Gaspard Dughet, the 
French school had produced few painters of pure 
landscape — none of first-rate ability. The first to 
restore to the neglected art a something of its pristine 
brilliance was Joseph Vernet. An observer, but one 
rather clever than sincere, he is certainly wanting in 
the strength and gravity which are characteristics 
of the great masters. In his work there is more 
intelligence than deep feeling, and more elegance than 


true beauty. Like the descriptive poetry of the time, 
it shows us Nature a trifle too sleek and shiny, and 
a little over-emphasised ; she is rather a theme for 
discourse than a model to be lovingly studied as a 
source of inspiration. Yet even where the truth is 
thus arbitrarily treated, it retains under Vernet's brush 
sufficient charm, if not to move, at least to interest 
and to please; so that the success of this brilliant artist, 
and the influence he exerted on the French school 
and on public taste, are easily understood. 

In the lofty position which his talent had won 
him, Joseph Vernet was more capable than any other 
painter of giving a happy impulse to the art of 
engraving ; and, indeed, the landscape engravers 
formed by him were masters of the genre. We have 
mentioned Balechou and Vivares. The former, at 
first a pupil of Lepicie, began by engraving portraits, 
the best known of which, a full-length of Augustus 
III., King of Poland, brought upon its author the 
shame of a fitting punishment. Convicted of having 
detained a certain number of the first proofs for his 
own profit, Balechou was struck ofl" the list of the 
Academic, and obliged to retire to Aries, his native 
town, and thence to Avignon, where he took to land- 
scape engraving. There it was that he executed after 
Joseph Vernet his '' Baigneuses," his " Calme," and his 
" La Tempete." In his latter years he returned to 
history, and executed after Carle Vanloo his tiresome 
"Sainte Genevieve," which was once so loudly vaunted, 
which even now is not unadmired, and which really 
might be a masterpiece, if technical skill and excessive 


ease of handling were all the art. Though, unlike 
Vivares, he did not teach the practice of landscape 
in England, Balcchou contributed enormously by his 
works to the education of the English engravers ; and 
the best of them, Woollett, confessed that he pro- 
duced his " Fishing" with a proof of the Frenchman's 
" La Tempete " always before his eyes. 

As for Vivares, he engraved in Paris a number of 
plates after Joseph Vernet and the Old Masters, and 
then, preceding De Loutherbourg and many others of 
his nation, he migrated to London. He took with 
him a new art, as Hollar had done a century before, 
and founded that school of landscape engravers whose 
talents were destined to constitute, even to our own 
time, the chief glory of English engraving. 

But before his pupils and imitators could take 
possession after him of this vast domain, engraving 
in England had developed considerably, in another 
direction, under the influence of two distinguished 
artists, Hogarth and Reynolds, born at an interval of 
twenty-five years from one another. The son of a 
printer's reader, who apprenticed him to a goldsmith, 
William Hogarth spent almost all his youth in 
obscurity and poverty. At twenty he was engraving 
business cards for London tradesmen ; some years 
later he was sign-painting, and was wearing himself 
out in work entirely unworthy of him, when he forced 
the attention of the public by the publication of a 
satirical print, the heroes of which were well known 
and easily recognised. His success being presently 
confirmed by other compositions of the same sort, 


he profited by the fact to apply his talent to more 
serious work. He soon acquired a reputation, en- 
riched himself by marrying the daughter of Sir 
James Thornhill, the king's painter, and remained till 
his death (1764) one of the most eminent men of his 

Both as painter and engraver Hogarth was a 
deep student of art, on which he has left some com- 
mendable writings ; but he never succeeded in ful- 
filling all its conditions. Extravagantly pre-occupied 
with the philosophical significance with which he 
purposes to endow his work, he does not always see 
when he has gone far enough in the exposition of his 
idea : he darkens it with commentary ; he becomes 
unintelligible by sheer insistence on intelligibility. 
There are allegories of his in which, still striving after 
ingenuity, he has piled detail upon detail till the 
result is confusion worse confounded. 

But when no excess of analysis has decomposed 
his primary idea to nothingness, by directing the atten- 
tion elsewhere, Hogarth strikes home, and compasses 
most powerful effects. His series of prints, in which are 
storied the actions of one or more persons — his " Mar- 
riage a la Mode," his " Rake's Progress," his " Harlot's 
Progress," his " Industry and Idleness " — the last a 
sort of double biography representing the different 
lives of two apprentices, one of whom becomes Lord 
Mayor of London, whilst the other dies at Tyburn — 
all these engraved by himself, partly in etching and 
partly in line, are, as regards the execution, by no 
means irreproachable ; are frequently, indeed, not even 


good : but in expression and gesture they are nearly 
always of startling truth, while the moral meaning, the 
innermost spirit of every scene, is felt and rendered 
with the keenest sagacity. At the very time when 
the genius of Richardson was working a like revo- 
lution in literature, Hogarth — and herein lies his 
chief merit — was introducing domestic drama into 
art. In England and elsewhere the painter-engraver 
and the novelist, both creators of thp style in which 
they worked, have had a crowd of imitators ; but 
they cannot be said to have met with rivals any- 

The genius of Sir Joshua Reynolds is of a totally 
different order. In the sense of consisting in the senti- 
ment of effect and the masterly arrangement of tones 
it is essentially picturesque, and presents such a bold- 
ness of character as engravers could easily appreciate 
and reproduce. There is no far-fetched significance, 
no accessories tending to destroy the unity of the 
whole. On the contrary, the work proceeds by syn- 
thesis; it is all largely schemed, and built up in masses 
where the details are scarcely indicated. The expres- 
sion lies not so much in niceties of physiognomy as 
in the whole attitude of the sitters and the character- 
istic pose and contour of the faces represented. The 
painter's imagination is brilliant rather than delicate ; 
sometimes, indeed, it degenerates into bad taste and 
eccentricity. But far more frequently it gives his 
attitudes an air of ease and originality, and the general 
aspect of his portraits breathes a perfect dignity. The 
vigorous contrasts, the freedom and wealth of colour 


which are their primary characteristics, as they are 
those of Gainsborough's work Hkewise, are qualities to 
whose translation the free and flowing stroke of the 
graver is hardly fitted, but which mezzotint would 
naturally render with ease and success. And, as we 
have said before, it is to the influence of the famous 
painter that must be attributed the immense exten- 
sion of the latter process in England during the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

The landscape and mezzotint engravers began, 
therefore, to vitalise the English school : the former 
especially lent it real importance by their talent. 
From 1760 or thereabouts WooUett published, after 
Richard Wilson or after Claude, those admirable works 
which, on account of their suave harmony of effect, 
their transparency of atmosphere, and their variable- 
ness of colour, are less like engravings than pictures.^ 
Shortly afterwards he completed his fame by work 
of another sort : the reproduction, first, of West's 
"Death of Wolfe," and then of his "Battle of La 
Hogue," the American's best picture, and the finest 
historical plate ever engraved in England. Lastly 
about the same time, Robert Strange, a pupil of 
Philippe Le Bas, engraved in line, after Correggio and 

* In his landscapes, Woollett makes use of etching, line, and the dry- 
point, all three. Philippe Le Bas was the first to make use of dry-point 
to render the misty tones of distances and the clearness of skies. This 
mode of engraving, improved by Vivares, was carried to its highest per- 
fection by Woollett. Certain English artists of the same period tried 
to apply the process of mezzotint to landscape engraving ; but the land- 
scapes engraved in this way by Watson and Brookshaw, after the Ger- 
man Kobell, will not bear comparison with Woollett's. 


Van Dyck, the ** Saint Jerome " and the " Charles I. ; " 


as well as other prints after these masters, which are 


quite as charming, and should, indeed, be unre- 
servedly admired if the correctness of their drawing 
were only equal to their elegance of modelling and 
flexibility of tone. 

So much progress accomplished in so few years 
attracted the attention of statesmen and of the 
English Government. They saw it was time to cease 
from paying tribute to the superiority of French 
engravers, and to allow those talents to develop in 
London which had till then been sent to school 
in Paris. George III. had just founded the Royal 
Academy (Jan., 1769), with Reynolds for its first 
President. He determined still further to strengthen 
the impulse of art by countenancing great under- 
takings in engraving ; and as he wished the country 
to reap as much commercial benefit as honour in the 
matter, he granted bounties on the exportation of 
English engravings, while the importation of French 
work was taxed with enormous duties. 

In this way the progress of national art became a 
political question, and every one hastened to second 
the king's views. Woollett's plates had been largely 
subscribed for before publication, and the illustrated 
editions of the travels of Cook and Sir Joseph Banks 
were taken up in a few days. Finally, when it was 
proposed to engrave Copley's " Death of Chatham," 
the subscription at once ran up to ;^3,6oo ; and when, 
the first proofs having been taken, the plate was re- 
turned to the engraver, he made almost as much more 
in less than two years. Nor did the fever of protection 
in any wise abate for that. On the contrary, it called a 


number of talents into being, and attracted to London 
a crowd of foreigners, all sure of the encouragement 
which began to fail them elsewhere. Cipriani, Ange- 
lica Kauffmann, Catherine Prestel, the Swiss Moser 
and his daughter, and a hundred other painters or 
engravers, came in one after another to contribute to 
the success of the school and the spread of English 

Amongst these adventurers there was one — the 
Florentine Bartolozzi — whose works at once became 
the fashion, less, perhaps, for any intrinsic merit than 
because of the novelty of his method. The process 
called "stipple engraving" excluded the use of lines 
and cross hatchings, and consisted in the arrangement 
of masses of dots more or less delicate in them- 
selves, and more or less close in order, and designed 
in proportion to their relative distance or nearness, 
to render nice gradations of tone, depth of shadow, 
and even completeness of outline. 

Speaking exactly, this was but an application 
to the general execution of a work of a process 
adopted long before by etchers and line engravers 
as a means of partial execution. Jean Morin, Bou- 
langer, Gerard Audran himself, and many others, had 
habitually made use of dots to supplement the work 

* In a work dedicated to Pitt, "On the Origin of Trade and its 
History to the Present Times " (London, 1790), we read that the 
prints exported from England at that time were, as compared with 
those imported from France, in the proportion of *' five hundred to 
one by the most exact computation," and that the trade in English 
engravings, far from being restricted to one or two countries, extended 
all over Europe." 


of the burin or the needle, or to effect transitions 
between their lights and shadows, or the larger of 
their outlines and subtler details of their modelling. 
Moreover, before their time, Jan Lutma, a Dutch 
goldsmith, invented a method of " engraving in dots," 
which, produced by means of his etching needle and 
aquafortis, were deepened and enlarged with chisel 
and hammer : whence the name of opus mallei be- 
stowed on his results. Bartolozzi, therefore, and the 
English engravers who, like Ryland, made use of 
stippling, did but revive and extend in their own way 
the boundaries of a method already known. They 
displayed remarkable skill, it is true, but their work, 
like the rest of its kind, displays a feebleness of form 
that is almost inevitable, and is touched with a cold- 
ness inherent in the very nature of the process. 

In stipple engraving, the burin and the dry point 
are used alternately, according to the degree of vigour 
or delicacy required. The parts that are to come 
light in proof are done with the dry-point ; while 
those to come dark are covered with dots ploughed 
deeper with the burin. Round the edge of these, by 
the mere act of ploughing, there is raised a rim, or 
rampart — technically called a "burr" — which the 
engraver, to regain the ground thus lost, has to 
rub down with the burnisher. In this way he goes 
on dotting and burnishing till he gets a close enough 

Immensely successful during the last years of 
the eighteenth century, stipple engraving soon went 
out of fashion, not only in France, where it scarce 


survived the first attempts of Copia, but even in 
England, where the example of Bartolozzi and 
Ryland had been followed with such eager diligence. 
Such, too, somewhat later, was the fate of a some- 
what similar process — the "crayon engraving," of 
which Gilles Demarteau, born in Liege, but bred 
and trained in Paris, may be considered, if not 
the inventor, at least the most active, skilful, and 
popular practitioner.* 

The object of crayon engraving is to imitate the 
effect of red or black chalk on a coarse-grained 
paper, which, by the very roughness of its surface, 
retains no more than an uneven, and as it were a 
disconnected, impression of the strokes or hatchings 
laid upon it. In common with stipple engraving, it 
renders the loose and broken lines of the originals by 
substituting a mass of dots for the ordinary work of 
the burin or the needle. It differs, however, from 
stipple engraving in the method of working, and even 
in the nature of the tools employed. The outlines 
are traced on the varnished copper with a toothed or 
multi-pointed needle, while the inner hatchings are 
made either with the needle in question, or with what 
is called a roulette, which is a steel cylinder bristling 
with small, jagged teeth, and running on a fixed axis. 
The roulette, which is provided with a handle, is so 

♦ The credit of the invention is really due to Jean Charles Fran9ois, 
born at Nancy in 1717. But the application that Fran9ois made of his 
discovery was — if we consider the improvements introduced soon after- 
wards by Demarteau — still so incomplete that it seems only fair to 
attribute to the latter a principal share in the original success. 


directed that the teeth are brought to bear directly, 
and with more or less effect, on the varnished copper. 
Then the plate is bitten in ; and when the aquafortis 
has done its part, the work, if necessary, is resumed 
with the same tools on the bare metal. 

The first specimens of crayon engraving were pre- 
sented in 1757 to the Academic Royale de Peinture, 
which, an official document informs us,* "highly 
approved of the method, as being well fitted to per- 
petuate the designs of good masters^ and multiply 
copies of the best styles of drawings." For the repro- 
duction of drawings, the new process was certainly 
better than etching, at least as practised to that end 
by the Count de Caylus and the Abbe de Saint-Non 
The misfortune was, that in the eighteenth century 
as in the first years of the nineteenth, the crayon 
engravers appear to have thought far less of "per- 
petuating the designs of good masters" than of 
suiting their choice of originals to the prevailing 
fashion. As a matter of fact, however skilful they were 
in execution, the only cause served by Demarteau's 
innumerable fac-similes was that of the Bouchers and 
Fragonards, and of kindred experts in " the most dis- 
tinguished school of drawing." Reproduced by en- 
graving, the crayon studies of these persons became 
the ordinary means of instruction in academies and 
public schools ; and from the first the popularity of 
these wretched models was such that, even after the 

* "Lettre de Cochin, Secretaire perpetuel de I'Academie, au Sieur 
Fran9ois," 26th November, 1757. 


revolution effected in art by David, on through the 
Empire, and as late as the Restoration, art students 
generally remained subject to the regimen adopted for 
their, predecessors in the days of Louis XV. and XVI. 
Then lithography made its appearance, and in no 
great while was applied to the production of drawing- 
copies, once the monopoly of crayon engraving. Nor 
was this the only quarter from which the method of 
Frangois and Demarteau was assailed. By degrees 
it fell out of use for the production not only of 
drawing-copies, but of fac-similes of drawings by 
the masters for artists and amateurs ; or, if occa- 
sionally practised, it was — as in the subjects engraved 
some thirty years back from drawings in the Louvre 
and the Musee de Lille — with so many modifica- 
tions, and in combination with such a number of 
other processes, as reduced it from supremacy to 
the rank, till worse should befall, of a mere auxiliary. 
In our own time it has had its death-blow in the 
advance of photography ; and as, after all, its one 
object was the presentation of an exact likeness, 
the absolute effigy, of its original, the preference of a 
purely mechanical process of reproduction is, if we 
consider the certainty of the results, no more than 
natural. In proportion as, by its very nature, photo- 
graphy is powerless to take the place of engraving, 
when the work to be reproduced, be it picture or 
mural decoration, presupposes in the interpreter, in 
whatsoever degree, the power of translating what 
is before him, just so far is it capable of fulfil- 
ling the one r^ondition imposed upon the copyist of a 


drawing or an engraving — that of perfect fidelity in 

The object attempted by Francois, Demarteau, 
Bonnet, and others — the production by engraving of a 
sort of optical illusion, the exact fac-simile of a drawing 
— had been started before them by Jean Christophe Le- 
blond, an artist born of French parents at Frankfort, 
who, moreover, had sought to extend to the imitation 
of colour what his successors were content to restrict 
to the imitation of monochrome. Very early in the 
eighteenth century, Leblond succeeded in producing 
prints in several tints, by a method which he called 
"pastel engraving," and to which custom has given 
the more general name of "colour engraving." For 
the second half of this title, it might, perhaps, have 
been better to use the word "printing." What is 
called " colour engraving " is not really a special en- 
graving process. Its whole originality consists in 
the production of a single proof from several plates 
(generally four), in the preparation of which- the 
rocker, the roulette, and sometimes even the burin, 
have been used. From these plates, each inked with 
a. single colour, the effect of which is relieved or 
modified by the subsequent addition of those tints 
with which the other three are covered, there results 
in the proof, by the use of points of correspondence, 
an ensemble in colour which is similar in appearance 
to that of painting in pastel, in water-colour, or in 
gouache. This was pretty much the process, and 
the results were in some sort comparable with those 
obtained by chromo-lithography. The older method 


had, however, the advantage of the other in that, 
by the very variety of the preparation to which the 
plate was subjected, its results were not so liable to 
present the appearance, either coarse or dull, of 
common hand-tinted work. 

Some of Leblond's engravings, particularly a large, 
half-length " Louis XV.," enable us to estimate to the 
full the capacities of his invention. Leblond, indeed, 
must be counted an inventor, inasmuch as' it was his 
to discover a secret which, before him, had been only 
dimly foreseen, or at most half-guessed. Still, the essays 
in the first years of the seventeenth century of the 
Dutchman Lastmann, and a little later of Seghers the 
Fleming, should not be completely overlooked ; nor 
would it be just to refuse recognition to the practical 
improvements made in colour engraving, after Le- 
blond, by Gautier Dagoty, in Paris, and by Taylor, 
in London. In proportion to the relative importance 
of the two discoveries, Leblond played the same part 
in the history of the colour process as Daguerre in the 
history of heliography. They each effected so great 
an advance as to close the period of groping and 
darkness, and to some extent determine the course of 
progress. But it does not follow, therefore, that they 
owed nothing to the attempts of their predecessors ; 
and if their claim to inventors' honours is fairly 
established, it is because they solved a problem they 
were by no means the first to attack. 

Leblond, indeed, got nothing from his discovery 
but the honour of making it. He sought in vain 
to turn it to account in London, and succeeded no 
Q 2 


better in Paris. In the latter city he lived for some 
years in great distress, and in 1741 he died there, in 
the hospital. 

Some years after the invention of colour engraving, 
another sort of engraving, or rather another sort of 
pictorial reproduction, the method called " au lavis," 
was invented, and very skilfully used from the outset, 
by Jean Baptiste Leprince ; and in no great while 
the series of innovations in the practice of the art, 
from the end of the seventeenth century, was com- 
pleted by the invention of aquatint. 

The first of these two processes is apparently of 
extreme simplicity. The line once engraved and bitten 
in, as in ordinary etching, it only consisted in brush- 
ing the plate with acid, as a draughtsman washes in 
on paper with sepia or Indian ink. The preliminary 
work, however, required a great deal of care and 
skill, and even a certain amount of scientific know- 
ledge. The particular quality of the copper, the 
composition of the varnishes and acids, and many 
other conditions impossible to discuss in detail, made 
the new process somewhat difficult of employment ; 
and before long the ardour of those practitioners who 
had essayed to imitate Leprince's results was very 
sensibly diminished. 

In spite of the value of these results, and the 
personal skill of the inventor; in spite, too, of the 
technical explanations contained in the " Plan du 
Traite de la Gravure au Lavis" presented by him 
(1750) to the Academic Royale, it was evident that 
the French engravers thought lightly of Leprince's 


discovery, and did not care to investigate its capa- 
bilities. It only got a fresh start in France when, 
notably modified and improved by the initiative of 
foreign engravers, it had been transformed in London 
into what is known as aquatint engraving. Then, 
however, in the hands of Debucourt,"^ and of Jazet 
later on, it acquired a popularity all the greater that 
its productions, by their very nature and quality, 
were more intimately in harmony with the inspira- 
tion and style of fashionable art. Jazet, for instance, 
contributed greatly to the triumph of aquatint in 
France, by applying it, from the first years of the 
Restoration, to the interpretation of the works of 
Horace Vernet. Such plates as " Le Bivouac du 
Colonel Moncey," the " Barriere de Clichy," the 
" Soldat Laboureur," and many others, were tolerated 
among Frenchmen for the sake of the associations 
they awakened at least as much as for their artistic 

It is possible that since then the engraver has 
reckoned a little too much on the world-wide repu- 
tation of his painter ; or it may be that he has been 
somewhat too conscious of the advantages of a 
rapid and facile method, and has sacrificed the ideal 
of delicacy and correctness to the enhancement of 

* Before giving himself up almost exclusively to the practice of aqua- 
tint, Debucourt produced a large number of engravings in colour : ** Le 
Jardin" and ** La Galerie de Bois au Palais Royal," the " Promenade 
aax Tuileries," " L'Escalade," and so forth. We know the ardour, 
verging on mania, with which these prints, albeit of little value from an 
artistic point of view, are now collected. 


a reputation for fertility. Certain it is that Jazet, as 
is proved by his early engravings, and especially 
the " Barriere de Clichy," was more capable than 
any one else of raising work in aquatint to the 
level of art ; and it is much to be regretted that 
his somewhat careless ease should have hindered 
the full development of his talent. It is still more 
to be regretted that, in spite of the laudable efforts 
of Messrs. Prevost, Girard, and others to maintain 
the process in the better way, it should have been 
dishonoured and deprived of all but a purely com- 
mercial importance by the production of multitudes 
of plates, whose only merit is their cheapness. If we 
consider the so-called Biblical scenes done in aquatint 
for exportation, the heroines of romance, the half- 
naked women described (by way of commentary) as 
" Love," " Souvenir," " Pleasure," " Desire," and all 
the terms of the erotic vocabulary, it is hard to say 
whether the intention or the execution is the more 
unpleasant. What is certain is that such things have 
nothing to do with art except as examples of its de- 
gradation and destruction. That section of the public 
sensible of their charm is certainly not that which 
is impressed by beauty, and it is useless to care 
about winning its approbation ; but when ugliness is 
everywhere it is to be feared that everybody may 
grow used to the sight, and forget to look elsewhere. 
The danger to which pure line engraving is thus 
exposed by the deplorable exigencies of competition 
is not the only one which threatens the art. A glance 
at its several phases since 1800 and at its present 


state is enough to show that the h'ne of talents has 
never once been interrupted ; that those of to-day are 
every whit as vigorous and accomplished as those 
of the past ; but that for opportunities of displaying 
their full power, and being appreciated at their true 
worth they have not seldom to wait in vain. 




At the beginning of the nineteenth century some of 
the most celebrated artists of the French school of 
painting belonged, by the nature of their talent as well 
as by the date of their chief successes, to the ante- 
revolutionary period. Greuze, Fragonard, Moreau, 
Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Vien even, notwithstanding his 
intentions of reform, Regnault and Vincent, in spite 
of their influence as professors on the new generation 
— all seemed rather to recall the past than to herald 
the future. One man, Louis David, personified the 
progress of the epoch. His pictures, " Les Horaces,'"* 
and the " Brutus,^' had appeared some years before, 
and the approaching exhibition of " Les Sabines"was 
impatiently expected. At this time the younger 
artists and the public unanimously regarded David 
as the regenerator of national art and a master 
justly supreme. Architecture, painting, furniture, 
even fashion in dress, were all subjected to his ab- 
solute sway ; everything was done in imitation of 
the antique, as understood and interpreted by him. 
Under the pretexts of pure beauty and a chaste style, 
nothing but a soulless body, a sort of coloured statue, 
was represented on canvas ; while sculpture became no 


more than an imitation of Greek or Roman statuary. 
Since Lebrun, indeed, no single influence had so 
completely tyrannised over French taste. 

Engraving, though fated like the other arts to 
accept the dictatorship of David, was at any rate the 
first to throw off his yoke. Before the Restoration, 
whilst the painter of Marat, then painter to the 
Emperor, was still in the fulness of his power, the 
great Italians, whose pictures crowded the Louvre, 
had already been interpreted with more respect for 
the memory of the old manner than submission to 
the requirements of the newer style. 

The most talented of these new artists, Boucher- 
Desnoyers, when working at his " Belle Jardiniere," 
after Raphael, or his "Vierge aux Rochers," after 
Leonardo, probably thought much less of contem- 
porary work than of the French engravers of the 
seventeenth century ; while on their part Bervic and 
Tardieu, who had long before given proof of their 
power, faithfully maintained the great traditions : the 
one in an austerity of execution and a firmness of 
touch hereditary in his family, the other in his scientific 
case of handling. These three were of the race of 
the older masters, and their work, unjustly forgotten 
some years later during the rage for the English 
manner, deserves a better fate than to be confounded 
with the cold and formal prints published in the 
France of the First Empire. The engravings after 
David, by popularising his work, obtained some success 
in their day, but have failed to secure a lasting repu- 
tation. The fault, however, is not altogether with 


the engravers : in spite of the apparent conscientious- 
ness of the painter, his real indecision of method 
must count for something in the mediocre achieve- 
ments of his interpreters. 

Free to impose his own system on all other artists, 
David might have enforced his artistic authority on 
his contemporaries ; and even if it were beyond his 
power to restore the French school of engraving, he 
might at least have regenerated its principles, and, 
combining separate efforts under the synthesis of his 
own personal conception, have breathed into it a fresh 
spirit of unity. This he never attempted ; and it is 
even hard to guess at what he expected from his 
engravers. It might be supposed that his own fond- 
ness for precision of form would have led him to 
require from them insistence as to the drawing, and 
not much attention to colour and effect ; yet most of 
the prints after his pictures — amongst others those 
by Morel and Massard — are heavy in tone and feeble 
in drawing. There is in them no trace either of the 
precise manner of David, or of the large method of 
the old school ; it is therefore not in these common- 
place works, and still less in the barren engravings 
composing the great " Commission d'Egypte," that 
we must look for signs of such talent as then existed 
in France. 

The few painters who, like Regnault, were more 
or less independent of David's influence, or, like 
Prud'hon, had ventured to create an entirely original 
method, were admired by so small a public that their 
pictures were not generally reproduced in engraving, 


and thus could do little for the progress of the art. 

The Earl of AmndeU After Van Dyck. 

Some, however, of Prud'hon's drawings and pictures 


met, under the Directory and the Empire, with excel- 
lent interpreters in Copia and in Barthelemy Roger ; 
while in the last years of the eighteenth century Ber- 
vic's engraving of Regnault's " Education d'Achille " 
had obtained at least as much success as the original 
had won in the Salon of 1783. To give a companion 
to this justly celebrated piece, Bervic soon after pub- 
lished his " Enlevement de Dejanire," after Guido. 
This work, to which the judges of the Decennial 
Competition awarded the prize in preference to any 
engraving published in France from 1800 to 18 10, 
by confirming the engraver's reputation, caused his 
fellow-craftsmen to return once more to the old path 
of progress. 

It must not, however, be supposed that Bervic did 
not himself diverge somewhat from the way of the 
masters : it may even be said that he was always 
more inclined to skirt it than to follow it resolutely. 
At the outset he was not sufficiently alive to the 
perils of facility ; and later on he was apt to attach 
too much importance to certain quite material quali- 
ties. Yet it must be added that he never went so 
far as to entirely sacrifice essentials to accessories, 
and that more than once — in his fine full-lenerth of 
Louis XVI. for instance — he displayed an ability all 
the more laudable as the original was by no means 

From the engraving it is hard to suspect the 
mediocrity of Callet's picture. This, now at Versailles, 
is insipidly coloured and loosely and clumsily drawn ; 
the print, on the contrary, is to be admired for its 

Fig. 95. LERvic, 
L'fiducation d'Achille." After Regnault 


solid appearance, and its easy yet unostentatious 
handling. Lace, satin, velvet, all accessories, indeed, 
are treated with a. largeness of touch by no means 
at variance with delicacy, and the general tone is 
harmoniously luminous. Here and there, however, 
is already visible a certain artifice of manner which 
threatens to degenerate into an unwise cultivation 
of fine line, and end in an abuse of skill. This, in- 
deed, is what happened. Bervic, henceforth, thought 
of little else but dexterity, and ended in his "Laocoon," 
perhaps the best known of all his works, by a display 
of common technical fireworks, to a certain extent 
surprising, but by no means to be unreservedly 
admired. The care with which he set himself to 
imitate the grain of marble by minute workmanship 
is only trifling with his subject ; and though a group 
of statues cannot be treated in the same way as 
figures painted on canvas, it was more important, and 
more desirable in every respect, to reproduce the 
character and style of the original than to imitate 
the substance in which it was wrought. 

Moreover, in the attempt so to interpret his model, 
Bervic has defeated his own purpose. By a multitude 
of details, and an abuse of half-lights intended to 
bring out the slightest accidents of form and model- 
ling, he has only succeeded in depriving the general 
aspect of brilliancy and unity. 

Far removed, indeed, was such a method from that 
of the Old Masters, and Bervic lived long enough to 
change his mind. " I have missed the truth," he de- 
clared in his old age, '* and if I could begin life again, 


I should do nothing I have done." There he wronged 
himself. As happens often in tardy repentances, he 
remembered past errors only to exaggerate them ; 
but we must be juster to the engraver of the " Louis 
XVI." and *' L'£ducation d'Achille " than he was to 
himself, and not forget that much of his work should 
be excluded from the sweeping condemnation which 
he launched upon the whole. 

Whilst Bervic was counted the greatest French 
engraver, Italy boasted of a man, his inferior in 
reality, but whom, in the existing dearth of talent, 
his countrymen agreed to thrust into the glorious 
eminence of a master. Like Canova, his senior by 
a few years only, Raphael Morghen had the good 
fortune to be born at the right time. Both second- 
rate artists, they would have passed almost unnoticed 
in a more favoured century ; as it was,* in the 
absence of contemporary rivals, their compatriots 
accepted their accidental superiority as a proof of 
absolute merit. Moreover, by merely submitting in 
some sort to the dictates of opinion and of public 
taste, their popularity and success were easily assured. 
The writings of Winckelmann and Raphael Mengs 
had brought antique statues and Italian pictures of 
the sixteenth century once more into favour ; so 
that Canova, by imitating the former more or less 
cleverly, and Morghen by engraving the latter, could 
neither of them fail to please, and it is especially to 
their choice of subjects that we must attribute the 
great reputation they both enjoyed. 

Morghen, the pupil and son-in-law of Volpato, whose 


weak engravings from the " Stanze/' in the Vatican, 
are known to every one, shared with that feeble 
artist, and with Longhi, the privilege of reproducing 
admirable paintings, which had either never been 
engraved, or not since the time of the masters. This 
alone gives a certain value to his plates, faulty as 
they are. Assuredly, for instance, the engraving of 
Leonardo's " Last Supper " reproduces no more than 
the general lines of the composition and the attitude 
of the figures. We look at it as we might listen 
to an inferior actor reading verses from " Polyeucte " 
or " Athalie," because the inspiration of the master is 
still to be felt, in spite of the intermediary of ex- 
pression ; only the sort of beauty inherent in the 
conception and arrangement of the original remains 
in this piece of Morghen's. What can be said of 
the head of the Saviour, like those of the Apostles, 
restored by the engraver, and unillumined by the 
faintest glimmer of sentiment ? How is it possible, 
examining the work in detail, not to be offended 
by the arrogance of the technique and the display 
of mere mechanical facility, when one remembers the 
incomparable accuracy of Leonardo and his perfection 
of style? 

But in thus substituting his own manner, and 
the caprices of his individual taste, for the man- 
ner and the taste of the painter of " The Last 
Supper," Morghen only treated this great master as 
he was in the habit of treating others. Whether it 
was his lot to interpret Raphael or Poussin, Andrea 
del Sarto or Correggio, he had but one uniform 


method for the most conflicting types ; and to his 
tricks of hand he subjected, without remorse, the 
inspired grace or the noble energy of whatever he 
copied. Once, however, it was given him to entertain 
higher aspirations, and to study more conscientiously 
the particular characteristics of the work he was to 
reproduce. It would be impossible without deliberate 
injustice to avoid recognising merit in his plate from 
Van Dyck's "Francesco de Moncada," as much on 
the score of intelligent fidelity as of skilful execu- 
tion. But, for his other works, could one, without 
equal injustice, condone the inadequacy of expression 
and drawing, the systematic contempt of all effort, 
the many evidences of vain and self-confident ease 
which refuses to be humbled even in the presence of 
genius ? 

Morghen preserved till the end the brilliant repu- 
tation which his extreme fertility and the compla- 
cent patriotism of the Italians had won for him at 
the outset. Born in Naples, he settled in Florence, 
whither he had been allured by the Grand Duke 
Ferdinand III., and where he remained during the 
French occupation, and, much less resentful than 
Alfieri, repulsed neither the homage nor the favour 
of the foreigner. On the return of the Grand Duke, 
his old protector, he was still less ready to yield to 
the Neapolitans, who coveted the honour of recalling 
the renowned artist to his native country. When 
at length he died in 1833, all Italy was stirred at 
the news, and innumerable sonnets, the usual expres- 
sion of public regret or enthusiasm, celebrated " the 


undying glory of the illustrious engraver of ' The Last 
Supper.' " 

Johann Godard Muller, who early in life had had 
nearly as widespread a recognition in Germany as 
Morghen in Italy, departed this world in lonely 
misery three years before the Neapolitan. Beyond 
the walls of Stuttgart, scarce any one remembered the 
existence or the brief renown of the engraver of the 
" Madonna della Sedia " and the " Battle of Bunker's 
Hill." For he had long ceased to trouble about his 
work or his reputation, and lived only to mourn a son, 
who in 1816 died at the very time when, in his turn, 
he was about to become one of the most distinguished 
engravers of his country. 

From childhood this son, Christian Frederick 
Miiller, had been devoted to his father's art. His 
first attempts were successful enough to warrant his 
early admittance to the school of engraving recently 
founded at Stuttgart by Duke Charles of Wurtem- 
berg. We have seen that during the second half 
of the eighteenth century many German engravers 
came to Paris for training, and that many remained 
there. Expelled from France, their adopted country, 
by the Revolution, they returned to Germany, and 
the institution of a school of engraving in Stuttgart 
was one result of their expulsion. But by 1802 many 
of the fugitives were already back in Paris, and the 
studios, closed for ten years, once more opened their 
doors to numerous pupils. P>ederick Muller, then 
• barely twenty, followed his father's example, and in his 
turn went to perfect himself under P>ench masters. 


Commended to the good offices of Wille, then past 
eighty, who felt it an honour to have taught Johann 
Godard Miiller, and introduced by him, the young 
man was soon in relation with Bervic, Tardieu, 
and Desnoyers ; and without constituting himself a 
thorough-going imitator of these fine craftsmen, he 
yet borrowed enough from them to be considered, if 
not their rival, at least one of their most faithful 
disciples. The plates he engraved for tTie " Musce 
Fran^ais," published by Laurent and Robillard,* show 
laudable submission to the principles of the masters 
and an already sound experience of art ; but it is in 
the " Madonna di San Sisto," in which he seems to 
have arrived at maturity, that his talent may be fully 
measured. Before undertaking this plate, the young 
engraver went to Italy to study other work by the 
" Divine Painter," and to prepare himself for the in- 
terpretation of the picture in the Dresden Gallery by 
drawing from the Vatican frescoes. On his return 
to Germany, he at once applied himself to the task, 
and pursued it with such ardour that, towards the 
end of 181 5, that is in three years, he had brought 
it to an end. The "Madonna di San Sisto" deserves 
to rank with the finest line engravings of the begin- 
ning of the century. It has long been popular; but 
renown came too slowly for the engraver, and un- 
happily he lacked the patience to await its coming. 

* This important publication contains, in four sections, the most 
remarkable pictures and sculptures of the Louvre, as it existed after 
Napoleon had enriched it with masterpieces from every school. 
Begun in 1802, it was continued till 181 1. 
R 2 


When Miiller had finished his work, he determined 
to publish it himself, hoping to gain not only honour 
but legitimate profit. He was exhausted by hard 
work, but he trusted to meet with the reward which 
he felt to be due to such continual effort, and to 
meet with it at once. Time passed, however, and the 
young engraver, a prey to feverish anxiety, began to 
rail at the indifference of his contemporaries. He had 
soon to make arrangements with a publisher, that 
the fruit of his labours might not be altogether lost. 
Several amateurs then bought proofs, but there was 
as yet no general popularity for a print the appear- 
ance of which, in the expectation of its author, should 
have had all the importance of a public event. So 
many disappointments completed the ruin of his 
health, and at last affected his reason. In a paroxysm 
of excitement, Miiller stabbed himself with a burnisher. 
Shortly after his " Sistine Madonna " obtained that 
great success which the poor artist had fondly 
anticipated. The publisher grew rich upon the 
proofs ; and the name of the young engraver who 
had made too great haste to sell them was with justice 
acclaimed throughout Europe. 

The works of Bervic, of Desnoyers, of Morghen and 
of Miiller, may be said to represent the state of en- 
graving in France, in Italy, and in Germany during the 
early years of the nineteenth century. They show that 
at that time the three schools professed the same 
doctrines, or, at least, followed the same masters ; 
but this seeming conformity was not destined to be 
of long duration. The principles of art were soon 


modified by the influence of new ideas, and the 
German' engravers (taking the lead in this change of 
aim) entered the path which they are still following. 

At the time of MuUer's death, the influence 
of Goethe and Schiller on German literature had 
begun to extend to the pictorial arts. Passionate 
study of the Middle Ages took the place of the 
worship of antiquity, and whilst the classical dictionary 
was still the only gospel for French painters, those 
beyond the Rhine were already drinking inspiration 
from Christian tradition and national legend. This 
was a happy reaction in so far as it reinvested art 
with that ethereal character which is indispensable to 
its higher developments ; but, on the other hand, 
rapidly degenerating into mere archaeology, the move- 
ment ended by oppressing and imprisoning talent 
under invariable formulas, A few years sufficed to 
reduce German art to such a condition that asceticism 
became the established rule. Since then Overbeck, 
Cornelius, and Kaulbach have added the weight of 
their authority and example, and continued and per- 
fected the tradition of their forerunners ; and this 
reformation has been as thorough in Germany as the 
far diftcrcnt revolution accomplished by David in 

The German painters having thus laid aside a part 
of their material resources, the German engravers 
have been obliged to confine themselves to a trans- 
lation of the ideal sentiment of their originals. In 
this task it must be allowed they have perfectly suc- 
ceeded. They reproduce with singular completeness 


that generative thought, and reh'gious, philosophical, 
or literary imagination, which, far more than any pic- 
torial idea, inspires the German painter. 

Strictly speaking, they do not produce engravings : 
that is, they do not produce works in which the burin 
has sought to render the value of tone, colour, 
chiaroscuro, or any constituent of a picture save 
composition and drawing ; they are satisfied to cut 
in the copper, with a precision frequently approach- 
ing dryness, the outlines of simple forms ; while, 
by way of concession to the true pictorial spirit, 
they think it enough to throw in here and there a 
few suggestions of modelling and light masses of 
shadow. Among the numerous specimens of this 
extreme reticence of execution, it is sufficient to 
mention the " Apostolical Scenes " engraved, after 
Overbeck, by Franz Keller, Ludy, and Steinfensand ; 
the plates after Cornelius, published at Carlsruhe and 
Munich, by Schaffer, Merz, and others ; and lastly, 
Thaeter's big " Battle of the Huns," after Kaulbach. 

Although subdivided into smaller classes, the 
modern German school is composed — at least, in so far 
as historical painting and engraving are concerned 
— of a' group of kindred talents, inspired by abstract 
reflection rather than the study of reality. Neverthe- 
less this main idea has not everywhere been carried 
out with the same logical rigour. The Dusseldorf 
engravers, for instance, have not always confined 
themselves, like those of Munich, to the representation 
of figures and their accessories, as mere silhouettes, 
strengthened, if at all, by the palest of shadows. Even 


more elastic principles hav^e prevailed, elsewhere. 
Felsing of Darmstadt, Mendel of Berlin, and Steinla 
of Dresden, have proved by their engravings after Fra 
Bartolommeo, Raphael, and Holbein, that they have 
no notion of denying themselves any of the methods 
used by the masters of engraving for imitating in 
the highest perfection the relief and life of objects 
figured on canvas. But these and other efforts must 
be considered exceptional. As we hav^ said, the 
dominant tendency of German art since the reform 
is rather towards deliberate, even systematic, con- 
ception than spontaneous expression of "sentiment : 
it is, in fact, the mortification of the eye for the 
intelligence. In a word, German engravers trust too 
much to logic and analysis, and too little to their 
senses. It is only natural that they should. The 
qualities lacking in their works are also lacking in 
the pictures and drawings from which these are 
engraved. Still, their main principle once admitted, 
we must allow that it could not well be pushed to a 
more logical conclusion. In Germany, separate and 
independent talents do not exist, as in Belgium, 
Austria, Switzerland, and Russia. The end is the 
.same for all, and is obtained by all in nearly the same 
degree. In England, also, engraving, considered as a 
whole, presents an incontestable unity ; nevertheless, 
the difference between the schools is great. A trifle 
hypochondriacal by dint of privations and penance, 
German art is sustained by a feverish faith which 
lends to it the animation of life ; while in spite of 
its flourishing looks, art is really decayed in 


constitution. Its health is only apparent, and the 
least study of its vital sources compels the recognition 
of its frailty, 

It has frequently been said that the arts are the 
expression of the moral tendency of a people. This 
is doubtless true ; at all events, it is true of those 
people for whom the arts have always been a 
necessity — of Greece and Italy, for example, where 
they have been as it were endemic. Where, however, 
art has been diffused by contagion — as an epidemic 
— it may remain quite distinct from national ten- 
dencies, or only represent a part of them, or even 
suggest the presence of quite antagonistic influences. 
Strictly speaking, a school of painting has only existed 
in England since the eighteenth century ; surely its 
characteristics, past and present, are in nowise a 
spontaneous expression of national feeling? Are all 
its most important achievements — the portraits of 
Reynolds, Gainsborough, Lawrence, and the landscapes 
of Turner — inspired by that practical wisdom, that 
spirit of order and love of exactness in everything, 
which characterise the English equally in private and 
in public life } On the contrary, the quest of spurious 
brilliancy and effect, exaggerated at the expense of 
accurate form and precision of style, is the one 
tradition of the English school of painting ; and in 
spite of the inventive and tasteful work produced in 
the first half of the century by artists like Wilkie, 
Smirkc, and Mulready, as of the more recent efforts 
of the Pre-Raphaelites, it would seem as if the school 
were neither able nor willing to change. 


The aesthetic formula accepted and used, from 
one generation to another, by the EngHsh painters 
has influenced — and, perhaps naturally, with still 
more authority — their compatriots the engravers. 
Just now English engraving seems careless of further 
effort It is as though its innumerable products had 
nothing whatever to reveal to those who buy them, 
and were bought from habit, and not from taste. 

It has been seen that George III. did his utmost 
to encourage line engraving, and that the exportation 
of prints soon became a source of revenue. How 
could the country neglect those wares which abroad 
were made so heartily welcome ? The aristocracy set 
the example. Men of high social position thought 
it their duty to subscribe to important publications. 
In imitation, or from patriotism, the middle class in 
their turn sought to favour the growth of engraving ; 
and when, some years later, it became the fashion to 
illustrate " Keepsakes " and " Books of Beauty " with 
steel engravings, their cheapness put them within 
everybody's reach. People gradually took to having 
prints in their houses, just as they harboured super- 
fluities of other kinds ; and, the custom becoming 
more and more general, engravers could be almost 
certain of the sale of any sort of work. This is still 
the case. In London, every new print may reckon on 
a certain number of subscribers. Hence the facility 
of production, and the constant mechanical improve- 
ments tending to shorten the work ; hence, too, un- 
fortunately, the family likeness and purcl)' conventional 
charm of the English prints of the last half-century. 


A glance at any recent aquatints and mezzotints 
or into a new book of etchings, discovers nothing one 
does not seem to have seen a hundred times before. 
There are the eternal conflicts of light and darkness, 
the eternal contrasts between velvety and pearly tex- 
tures. In its needless formality, this trickery resembles 
that of uninspired and styleless singers. A brief //^;/^ 
passage is followed by a crashing forte ; the whole 
thing consists in abruptness of contrast, and depends 
for success entirely upon surprise. In both cases 
this element is soon exhausted by too frequent use. 
The novelty of their appearance might at first impart 
a certain charm to English engravings; but the un- 
ending repetition of the same effect has destroyed 
their principal merit, and it is difficult to regard them 
with attention or interest. 

It would be unjust, however, to confine ourselves to 
the consideration of the abuse of general methods, and 
to say nothing of individual talents. England has 
produced some remarkable engravers since those in 
mezzotint formed by Reynolds and the landscape 
artists who were Woollett's pupils. Abraham Raim- 
bach, for instance, was a fine workman, and a 
better draughtsman than most of his compatriots ; 
his plates after Wilkie's "Blind Man's Buff," ''The 
Rent-Day," and " The Village Politicians," deserve 
to be classed amongst the most agreeable works 
of modern engraving. Samuel William Reynolds, 
in his portraits after many English painters, and his 
plates from G^ricault, Horace Vernet, and Paul 
Delaroche, and Samuel Cousins, in his engravings of 


Lawrence's " Master Lambton," " Pius VII.," and 
" Lady Gower and her Son," have succeeded in getting 
a good deal more from mezzotint than the eighteenth 
century masters. 

In spite of the dissimilarity of their talents, Raim- 
bach and Cousins may yet be compared as the last 
English engravers who attempted to invest their work 
with a character in conformity with the strict con- 
ditions of the art. Since them the London crafts- 
men have practised more or less skilfully an almost 
mechanical profession. They have only produced 
cither the thousands of engravings, which every year 
proceed from the same source, or the prints that deal 
with still less ambitious subjects — animals, attributes 
of the chase, and so forth — on an absurdly large scale. 
They have, indeed, gone so far as to represent life-size 
dogs, cats, and game. There is even a certain plate, 
after Landseer, whose sole interest is a parrot on its 
perch, and which is much larger than the plates that 
used to be engraved from the largest compositions of 
the masters. To say the least, here are errors of taste 
not to be redeemed by improvements in the manufac- 
ture of tools, nor even by ingenious combinations of 
the different processes of engraving. However skilful 
contemporary English engravers may be in some 
respects, they cannot properly be said to produce 
works of art ; because they insist on technique to 
an inordinate degree, and in like measure reduce 
almost to nothing the proportions of true art and 

One might, with still greater reason, thus explain 


the mediocrity of American prints in the present day. 
Few as they are, they do not rivet attention as the 
manifestations of an art which, young and inexperi- 
enced, is yet vital in its artlessness ; on the con- 
trary, they are depressing as the products of an art 
fallen into the sluggishness of old age. It is as 
though engraving in the United States had begun 
in decay — or rather, it may be, negatively, with no 
tendency to change, and no impulse to progress. 
Mostly mezzotints or aquatints, the prints sold 
in New York and New Orleans suggest that their 
authors only wished to appropriate as best they could 
the present fashions and methods of English en- 
graving. As for work in line, it is almost entirely 
confined to the embellishment of bank notes and 
tradesmen's cards. Some of its professors are not 
without technical knowledge and a sort of skill ; and 
if it were absolutely necessary to find a characteristic 
specimen of American art it should, perhaps, be sought 
amongst works of this sort. In any case, it is best to 
reserve a definitive opinion, and simply to state what 
American engraving is, and must be, till a master arise 
by whose influence and example it may be animated 
and renewed. 

If, after considering the condition of engraving at 
the beginning of the present century, one should wish 
to become acquainted with its subsequent phases, as- 
suredly one has to admit the pre-eminence of French 
talent. It may even be advanced that French en- 
gravers have maintained, and do still maintain, almost 
unaided the art of engraving within those limits 


from which it cannot deviate without the risk of be- 
coming, as in Germany, a language of pure conven- 
tionaHty, or, as in England, the hackneyed expression 
of mere technical dexterity. 

Without doubt, evidences of broader and more 
serious talent were not lacking even in that school 
which some years earlier seemed to have gone to decay. 
After Volpato and Morghen, and in opposition to thcyr 
example, there were Italian engravers who worked 
to such purpose as to redeem the honour of the 
school. The plates by Toschi and his pupils, from 
pictures and frescoes by Correggio at Parma ; Cala- 
matta's "Voeu de Louis Treize," after Ingres; Mercuri's 
" Moissonneurs," after Leopold Robert, and many 
prints besides, either by the same artists or others of 
their race, assuredly deserve to rank with the most 
important achievements of French engraving in the 
first half of the nineteenth century. But the years 
that have lapsed since their publication, while barren 
for Italy, have brought a continued harvest to France. 
After the engravers who made their appearance in the 
last years of the Restoration their pupils became mas- 
ters in turn ; and, in spite of adverse circumstances, the 
indifference of a section of the public, and the increas- 
ing popularity of photography, their zeal seems no 
more likely to diminish than the value of their work. 

Once, it is true, at the most brilliant period of 
English engraving, the French school was not without 
a moment of hesitation on the part of some, of dis- 
loyalty on that of others. During the First Empire, 
the existence of the art movement in London in 


the last years of the active rule of George III. and the 
beginning of the Regency was unsuspected in France. 
The cessation of commercial relations between the two 
countries left the French in such complete ignorance 
that, until 1816, the only English prints they knew 
were those by Strange, Ryland, and Woollett : those, 
in fact, published before the end of the eighteenth 
century. And when, after the Restoration, English 
work first came under the eyes of French engravers, 
the fascination of its novelty dazzled them more than 
the splendour of its merit. 

Those who, like Tardieu and Desnoyers, were 
especially concerned with loftiness of style and mas- 
culine vigour of execution, were but little moved by 
such innovations, if we may judge by the nature of 
their subsequent publications. The "Ruth and Boaz," 
engraved by the former after Hersent, the divers 
" Madonnas " and the " Transfiguration," engraved 
by the latter after Raphael, do not testify that their 
.belief in the excellence of the old French method 
was at all shaken. But others, either younger or less 
stable of conviction, were soon seduced. Like the 
English engravers, they attempted to unite all the 
different processes of engraving in their plates ; and 
they sought, to the exclusion of all besides, the easiest 
way of work, piquancy of result, and prettiness every- 
where, even in history. These imitations became 
more numerous by reason of their first success, till 
they threatened the independence of French engraving, 
which had not been encroached upon since the seven- 
teenth century. 


The fever, however, soon cooled. A happy re- 
action set in soon after 1830, and continued during the 
following years ; and infatuation having everywhere 
been succeeded by reflection, the misleading qualities 
of the English manner were finally recognised. The 
French school takes counsel with none save itself, its 
past, and its traditions. To this just confidence in 
its own resources are owing its present superiority 
to, and independence of, other schools, and, what is 
more important still, its place apart from that me- 
chanical industry which, with its spurious successes, 
its raids upon a territory not its own, and its pre- 
tentious efforts to occupy the place of art, would 
seize upon those privileges, which, do all it may, it 
can never hope to confiscate. 

Of all the engravers who have honoured our epoch 
not in France alone, but also in other countries, the 
first in genius, as in the general influence he has exerted 
for nearly half a century, is certainly Henriquel — as 
he called himself in the early part of his career — 
Henriquel-Dupont in the second half. But he too, it 
would seem, had his hours of indecision. Perhaps, 
in some of his early works, certain traces may 
be discovered of a leaning towards the English 
manner, certain tendencies of doubtful orthodoxy ; 
but, at any rate, they have never developed into 
manifest errors : they have, at the most, resulted in 
venial sins, which themselves have been abundantly 

Henriquel is a master in the widest acceptation of 
the word : a master, too, of the stamp of those in the 



past of whom the French have the greatest right to 
be proud. The masters of the seventeenth century 
have scarcely left us plates at once so largely and 
so delicately treated, as his " Hemicycle du Palais 

Fig. 96. — HENRIQUEL. 
Cromwell (Etching). After Paul Delaroche. 

des Beaux-Arts," his " Moise Expose sur le Nil," and 
his *' Strafford," after Paul Delaroche ; his admirable 
sketch in etching of the *' Pilgrims of Emmaus," after 
Veronese ; and the portrait of M. Bertin, after Ingres ; 
and these are but a few. We have^ besides the 
Van Dyck, " Une Dame et sa Fille," engraved some 

Fig. 97.— IIENRIQUEL. 
The Marquis de PastoreL After Paul Delaroche. 


years before the " Abdication de Gustave Wasa," 
after Hersent, and the " Marquis de Pastoret," 
after Paul Delaroche ; the *' Christ Consolateur," 
engraved rather later, after Scheffer ; and, among 
less important, though certainly not less merito- 
rious works, the portraits engraved now with the 
scientific ease of the burin, now with the light and 
delicate touch of the needle: the "Pasta," the botanist 
" Desfontaines," " Desenne " the draughtsman, the 
"Brongniart," the *' Tardieu," the "Carle Vernet," 
the " Sauvageot," the " Scheffer," the " Mansard et 
Perrault," the ** Mirabeau a la Tribune," the 
" Rathier," and, latest of all, the charming little 
" Pere Petetot." 

In these — and in how many besides ? for the work 
of the master does not fall short of ninety pieces, 
besides lithographs and a great deal in pastel and 
crayon — Henriquel proves himself not only a trained 
draughtsman and finished executant, but, as it were, 
still more a painter than any of his immediate 
predecessors. Bervic — whose pupil he became, after 
some years in the studio of Pierre Guerin — was able 
to teach him to overcome the practical difficulties 
of the art, but the influence of the engraver of the 
" Laocoon " and the "Dejanirc" went no further 
than technical initiation. Even the example of Des- 
noyers, however instructive in some respects, was 
not so obediently followed by Henriquel as to cause 
any sacrifice of taste and natural sentiment. By 
the clearness of his views, as much as by the eleva- 
tion of his talent, the engraver of the " Hemicycle" 

Fig. 98.— henriquel. 
Alexnndei P.rongninrt. After a Drawing by the Engraver, 


is connected with the past French school and the 
masters who are its chief honour ; but by the 
particular form of expression he employs, by a 
something extremely unexpected in his manner and 
extremely personal in his acceptance of tradition, 
he stands to a certain extent apart from his prc- 
.decessors, and may be called an innovator, though he 
by no means advertises any such pretension. As we 
have just remarked^ his use of means is so versatile 
that he paints with the graver or the needle, where 
just before him others, even the most skilful — men 
like Laugier and Richomme — could only engrave ; 
and the influence he has exerted —whether by direct 
teaching, or by his signed work — has had the effect 
of rejuvenating engraving in France in more than 
one particular, and of awakening talents, some of 
which, though plainly betraying their origin, have 
none the less a weight and an importance of their 
own, and deserve an honourable place in the history 
of contemporary art. 

Several of his most distinguished pupils are dead : 
Aristide Louis, whose " Mignon," after Schefifer, won 
instant popularity ; Jules Frangois, who is to be 
credited, among other fine plates, with a real master- 
piece in the " Militaire Offrant des Pieces d'Or a une 
Femme," after the Terburg in the Louvre ; and Rous- 
seaux, perhaps the most gifted engraver of. his genera- 
tion, whose works, few as they are, are yet enough 
to immortalise him. Who knows, indeed, if some 
day the " Portrait d'Homme" from the picture in the 
Louvre attributed to Francia, and the " Madame de 



Fig. 99. — IIENRIQUEL. 
Alexander Tardieu. After a Drawing by Ingres. 


Sdvignj" from Nanteuil's pastel, may not be sou;5ht 
for with the eagerness now expended on the search 
fpr the old masters of engraving? 

The premature death of these accomplished crafts- 
men has certainly been a loss to the French school. 
Fortunately, however, there remain many others whose 
work is of a nature to uphold the ancient renown of 
French art, and to defy comparison with the achieve- 
ment of other countries. Where, save in France^ could 
equivalents be found, for instance, of the ''Coronation 
of the Virgin," after Giovanni da Fiesole, and the 
" Marriage of Saint Catherine," after Memling, by 
Alphonse Francois ; of the " Antiope," by Blanchard, 
after Correggio ; of the " Vierge de la Consola- 
tion," after Hebert, by Huot ; of Danguin's " Titian's 
Mistress," or Bertinot^s " Portement de Croix," after 
Lesueur ; of several other plates, remarkable in dif- 
ferent ways, and bearing the same or other names ? 
What rivalry need Gaillard fear, in the sort of 
engraving of which he is really the inventor, and 
which he practises with such extraordinary skill ? 
Whether he produces after Van Eyck, Ingres, or 
Rembrandt, such plates as the " Homme a TGEillet," 
the " CEdipus," and the " Pilgrims of Emmaus," or 
gives us, from his own drawings or paintings, such 
portraits as his "Pius IX." and his " Dom Gue- 
ranger," he, in every case, arrests the mind as well 
as surprises the eye, by the inconceivable subtlety 
of his work. Even when translating the works of 
others he shows himself boldly original. His methods 
are entirely his own, and render imitation impossible 


because they are prompted by the exceptional delicacy 
of his perceptions ; but, with all the goodwill in the 
world, it would be no less difficult to appropriate his 
keenness of sentiment or to gain an equal degree of 
mental insight. 

In France, then, line engraving has representa- 
tives numerous enough, and above all meritorious 
enough, to put to rout the apprehensions of those who 
believe, or affect to believe, the art irretrievably in- 
jured by the success of heliography. We have only 
to glance at the feats accomplished in our own day 
in engraving of another kind, and to examine those 
produced in France by contemporary French etchers, 
to be reassured on this question also. Might we not, 
even, without exaggeration, apply the term renais- 
sance to the scries of advances effected in the branch 
of engraving formerly distinguished by Callot and by 
Claude Lorraine ? When, since the seventeenth cen- 
tury, has the needle ever been handled in France by 
so many skilful artists, and with so keen a feeling for 
effect and colour.^ But let none mistake the drift of 
our praise. Of course, we do not allude here to the 
thousands of careless sketches scrawled on the varnish, 
with a freedom to be attributed to simple ignorance, 
far more than to real dash and spirit ; nor to those 
"would-be " works of art," for which the skill of the 
printer and the tricks of printing have done the most. 
To the dupes of such blatant trickeries they shall 
be left. Still, it is only just to acknowledge, in the 
etchings of the day, a singular familiarity with the 
true conditions of the process, and generally a good 


knowledge of pictorial effect, solid enough and suffi- 
ciently under control to maintain a mean between 
pedantry and exaggerated ease. 

Many names would deserve mention, were we not 
confined to general indications of the progress and the 
movement they represent. It is, however, impossible to 
omit that of Jacquemart, the young master recently de- 
ceased, who, in a kind of engraving he was the first to 
attempt, gave proof of much ingenuity of taste and of 
original ability. The plates of which his " Gemmes 
et Joyaux de la Couronne" is composed, and his 
etchings of similar models — sculpture and gold- 
smith's work, vases and bindings, enamels and cameos 
— all deserve to rank with historical pieces of the 
highest order ; even as the still-life painted by Chardin 
a century ago still excites the same interest, and has 
a right to the same attention, as the best pictures by 
contemporary allegorical or portrait painters. 

The superiority of the French school, in whatever 
style, has, moreover, been recently recognised and 
proclaimed in public. It has not been forgotten 
that the jury entrusted with the awards at the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1878 unanimously decreed a 
principal share to the engravers of France. Without in- 
justice this share might perhaps ha\ e been even greater 
if the jury, chiefly composed of Frenchmen, had 
not thought right to take full account of the special 
conditions of the competition, and the readiness with 
which the artists of other countries had responded. 

Since then the position of art in Europe, and the 
relative importance of talents in different countries 


of Europe, have not changed. If, to understand 

Fig. 100.— JULES jacquemart. 
Henri 111. After a Sixteenth Century Bronze. 

the state of contemporary engraving, it be thought 


desirable to confine our attention to the present 
moment, there can be no doubt whatever that the 
most cursory examination of the works representing 
the different processes of engraving must justify the 
above observations. These we should wish briefly to 

We have said that etching has, within the last few 
years, returned so much into favour, that probably at 
no other time have its products been more nume- 
rous, or in more general demand. This is but fair ; 
and it is not in France only that the public taste 
for etched work, large and small, is justified by the 
talent of the artists who publish it. To quote a few 
names only among those to be commended, in 
different degrees, for their many proofs of sentiment 
and skill, we have Unger in Austria; Redlich and 
Massaloff in Russia ; Gilli in Italy ; and Seymour 
Haden in England. By their talents they assist in the 
reform which the French engravers began, and which 
they now pursue with increasing authority and ex- 
ceptional technical knowledge. 

Mezzotint and aquatint have been not nearly so 
fortunate. The former appears to have fallen, almost 
everywhere, into disuse. Even in England, where, as 
soon as Von Siegen's invention was imported, a school 
was founded to cultivate its resources— in England, 
where, from Earlom to S. W. Reynolds and Cousins, 
mezzotint engravers so long excelled — it is a mere 
chance if a few are still to be found supporting 
the tradition. In other countries, France, Belgium, 
Germany, and Italy, mezzotint is, to speak strictly, 

Fig. ioi.— JULES jaojuemart, 

'Iriiwd, by Goutliiyrc. 


scarcely practised at all. It has been replaced by- 
aquatint, which itself, as we mentioned in a former 
chapter, is only used for purely commercial require- 
ments, except by engravers of real talent in com- 
bination with the needle and the graver. 

Wood engraving has made, in certain respects, con- 
siderable progress in the course of the last few years. 
In France and England it is producing results that not 
only confirm its advances, but are as the prophecy of 
still better things. Amongst recent prints, those of 
Robert, for instance, do more than promise ; they realise 
the hopes which others only hold out. All the same, it 
is commonly the case with wood engravers that, clever 
though they be, they are apt to deceive themselves as 
to the special conditions of their art, and too often 
to forget that it is not their province to imitate the 
appearance of line engraving. Instead of attempting 
to copy the complicated results of the graver, they 
should rather, in accordance with the nature of the 
process at their disposal, be satisfied with rapid sug- 
gestions of effect and modelling and a summary imi- 
tation of form and colour. The illustrations after 
Holbein, by Liitzelburger and other Germans of 
the sixteenth century, and the portraits and subjects 
cut on wood by Italian artists, or by Frenchmen 
of the same epoch, as Geofroy Tory and Salomon 
Bernard, are models to which the engravers of our own 
day would do well to conform, instead of entering, 
under pretext of improvements, upon attempted in- 
novations as foreign to the true nature of the process 
as to its objects and real resources. 


Though the practice of h'ne engraving is more 
scientific in France than anywhere else, it has never- 
theless distinguished representatives in other countries. 
Besides the French, the German, and the Italian en- 
gravers we have mentioned, Weber, in Switzerland ; 
De Kaiser, in Holland ; Biot and Franck, in Belgium ; 
Jacobi, Sonnenleiter,and Klaus, in Austria, are working 
manfully for the cause so well supported by tienriquel 
and his followers. But everywhere the persevera'nce of 
zeal and talent is unfortunately insufficient to overcome 
the prejudices of the public, and its exaggerated con- 
fidence in the benefits of mechanical discovery. 

Since the progress accomplished by science in 
the domain of heliographic reproduction, since the 
advantages with regard to material exactness that 
photography and the processes derived from it have 
offered, or seem to offer, line engraving, of all the 
different methods, is certainly the one that has suffered 
most from the supposed rivalry. A mistake, all the 
more to be regretted as it seems to be general, gave rise 
to the idea that it was all over with the art of engraving, 
simply because, as mere copies, its products could not 
have the infallible fidelity of photographic images, 
and that, however painstaking and faithful the en- 
graver's hand, it could never produce that exact fac- 
simile, that ruthless imitation of the thing copied. 

Nothing could be truer than this, if the only object 
of line engraving were to give us a literal copy, a 
brutal effigy of its original. But is it necessary to men- 
tion again that, happily, it has also the task of inter- 
pretation ? Owing to the very limited field in which 


he works, as it were in monochrome, the engraver is 
compelled to choose and to combine the best means 
of rendering by analogy the various colours of his 
original, to organise its general effect, and to bring 
out both the character and the style, now by the sim- 
plification of certain details, now by applying the 
principle of selection to certain others. We have 
no longer here the stupid impartiality, or, if it be 
preferred, the unreasoning veracity of a mechanical 
apparatus, but the deliberate use of feeling, intelli- 
gence, and taste — of all those faculties, indeed, which 
mould and enter into the talent of an artist. 

Now as long as there are men in the world capable 
of preferring idea to matter, and the art which appeals 
to the mind to the fact which speaks to the eyes, line 
engraving will retain its influence, however small it 
may be supposed, however limited it may really be. 
In any case, those who in these days, in spite of every 
obstacle, are determined to pursue in their own way 
the work of such men as Edelinck and Nanteuil, will 
have deserved recognition from their contemporaries, 
and will have averted, so far as they could, the complete 
decay, if it must come, of art properly so called, when 
sacrificed to the profit of chance manufacture and 
mere technique. 


English Engraving. 


England appears at first only to have participated 
in the European movement amongst the fine arts by 
the trade which it carried on in foreign productions, 
and the hospitaHty and the patronage which it gave 
to many celebrated artists. Tlius the country was 
enriched with foreign works, and examples were 
obtained, not perhaps worthy of being slavishly fol- 
lowed, but at all events capable of stimulating native 
talent. At the persuasion of Erasmus, Holbein, in 
1526, came to try his fortune in England, and was 
followed afterwards by Rubens and Van Dyck, as 
well as De Bry, Vorsterman, and the indefatigable 
Hollar, the latter an engraver unrivalled in his own 
style, and perhaps the most unfortunate in worldly 
circumstances who ever practised the art. 

As early as 1483 wood-cuts were used for illustra- 
tion in Caxton's " Golden Legend," and subsequent 
printers adopted the same practice in issuing their 
publications. In like manner, copperplate engravings 
appeared first as illustrations for books, notably in one 
called " The Birth of Mankind," dedicated to Queen 
Catherine, and published by Thomas Raynalde in 


1 540, and in a translation of Vcsalius' " Anatomy," 
published in 1545 by Thomas Geminus, who not only 
did the literary work, but copied the original wood- 
cuts on copper. In the middle of the century, the 
Hogenbergs took advantage of the method for por- 
traiture, Francis engraving in 1555 a portrait of 
Queen Mary, and his brother Remigius in 1573 one 
of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, who 
seems to have retained the engraver in his service. 

About the same period appeared William Rogers, 
who was born in London in 1545, and may be con- 
sidered as the earliest English engraver worthy of 
mention. His series of portraits are of consider- 
able merit, especially a whole length, taken from a 
drawing by Isaac Oliver, of Queen Elizabeth, stand- 
ing with orb and sceptre, and clothed in a rich em- 
broidered and puffed dress. This print bears at the 
bottom the name of the engraver, and was after- 
wards reduced in size all round, turning the figure of the 
Queen into a three-quarter length, and cutting away 
Rogers' name, which was not reinserted in the later 
publication. Both sizes of the print are scarce, es- 
pecially the original, and indeed for a considerable 
time the reduced impression was considered anony- 
mous, until the appearance of the larger engraving 
and its comparison with the smaller established the 
identity of the two. The elder Crispin de Passe 
engraved a plate from the same drawing of smaller 
size, and with different accessories in the background. 

De Passe, a native of Utrecht, and his family, 
William, Simon, and a daughter Magdalen, came 


over to England at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and engraved many prints of much interest 
in a style peculiarly their own. Reginald Elstracke 
(born 1620) and Francis Delaram flourished about 
the same period. 

But nothing was accomplished by any English en- 
graver of great artistic value, or which could be fairly 
compared with the work in other countries, until the 
middle of the century. It was then that William 
Faithorne, by his series of portraits, full of colour and 
executed in a clear and brilliant style, freed England 
from this reproach. He may be said to have inaugu- 
rated the era of English engravers, who, though 
mostly surpassed by other nations in the line manner 
of engraving, have no rivals in mezzotint. This 
style, which, when combined with bold etching, may 
be called the culmination of the art, was taken up 
in this country as soon as discovered, adopted by 
the English as their own, and gradually brought by 
them to the fullest perfection. Faithorne was a pupil 
of Sir Robert Peake, painter and engraver, and is said 
also to have studied under Nanteuil, when driven 
through the troubles of the first revolution to take 
refuge in France. His portraits of Mary, Princess of 
Orange, the Countess of Exeter, Sir William Paston, 
Queen Catherine of Braganza, Charles H., with long 
flowing black hair, Thomas Killegrew, dramatist and 
court favourite, and the famous Marquis of Worcester, 
one of the contributors to the invention of the steam 
engine, rank high as engravings, and worthily take their 
place amidst the achievements of other countries. 


Before treating of mezzotint and the new field 
which it opened out to the engraver, it will be well to 
call attention to the coming of Hollar to England, 
and his peculiar method of work, which consisted 
mainly of etching, assisted by the point or fine graver. 
Wenceslaus Hollar (born 1607) was forced early in 
life by the exigencies of those warlike times to leave 
his native land — Bohemia — and to travel through 
Germany, designing and engraving on his way, until, 
in 1636, he met at Cologne with the Earl of Arundel, 
the English Ambassador to Ferdinand H., who im- 
mediately took him into his employment, and on his re- 
turn from his mission brought him to England, where, 
with the exception of the troubled years of the first 
revolution. Hollar resided for the remainder of his life. 
Misfortune, however, which attended Hollar in 
youth, seemed relentless throughout his entire career ; 
after the restoration of Charles H., he underwent 
the terrible experiences of the plague and of the 
fire of London, and the times, hostile to every pur- 
suit of art, reduced Hollar to a state of indigence 
and distress from which, in spite of persevering 
industry, he seems never to have been able to 
recover. Sent to Africa in 1669 as the king's designer, 
to make drawings of the fortifications and surround- 
ings of the town of Tangiers, he meets with Algerine 
corsairs on his way back, from which he escapes with 
difficulty. On his return, it is only after delay and 
vexation that he can obtain i^ioo from the impecu- 
nious king for his two years' labours and expenses. 
He travels through England, making drawings and 


etchings of abbeys, churches, ruins, and cathedrals, 
and ultimately dies at Westminster (1677) in a state 
of extreme poverty and distress, his very death-bed 
being disturbed by bailiffs, who threaten the seizure 
of the last article of furniture he possessed, the bed 
upon which he is lying. His body was laid in the 
churchyard of St. Margaret's, Westminster ; his name 
and works remain living and immortal. Hollar's 
prints amount to considerably over two thousandj'and 
embrace all kinds of subjects, portraits, landscapes, 
architecture, costume, and animal and still-life ot 
varied character and quality. His treatment of the 
textures of hair, feathers, or the bloom on butterflies 
and other insects, is simply unrivalled. Besides his 
portraits, among other well-known and valued prints, 
there are— after his own designs — the long bird's-eye 
view of London in four parts, plans of the same city 
before and after the great fire (1666), exterior and 
interior views of the old Cathedral of St. Paul,^ 
Westminster Hall, with its picturesque surroundings, 
the Cathedrals of Lincoln, Southwell, Strasbourg, Ant- 
werp, and York, sets of butterflies, insects, costumes, 
muffs, and richly-wrought jewelled vessels. 

In addition to these, he engraved a set of thirteen 
plates (1671) on the various English ways of hunting, 
hawking, and fishing, after Francis Barlow, painter and 
engraver, who flourished during the same period, and 
excelled in the representation of animals, birds, and fish. 

♦ This fine cathedral, burnt with so many other churches in the 
great fire, was 690 feet in length, 130 feet broad, and 520 feet high at 
the top of the spire. 
T 2 



The latter artist has left a curious print — of which the 
only known example is supposed to be that of the 
British Museum — entitled "The Last Horse Race" 
(August 24, 1684), run before Charles II., at Dorsett 
Ferry (? Datchett), near Windsor Castle. Hollar was 
the master of Robert Gaywood, who in some measure 
imitates his style, and many of whose plates are justly 
esteemed, such as the series of heads after Van Dyck, 
the curious likeness of Cromwell, the large print of 
the philosophers Democritus and Heraclitus, as op- 
posing professors of gaiety and gravity, and the 
plates of birds and animals after Barlow. 

In the meantime, the art of mezzotint had been 
Invented, in the first place, by Ludwig von Siegen, 
a lieutenant-colonel in the service of the Landgrave 
of Hesse-Cassel, who used the method to execute a 
large portrait, bearing the date 1642, of the Princess 
Amelia Elizabeth, the dowager Landgravine of Hesse. 
The credit for the discovery has also been ascribed to 
the well-known Prince Rupert,"^ nephew of Charles I. ; 
but the legend of the prince meeting with a soldier 
cleaning his corroded gun, and thus conceiving the 
idea of engraving a copper plate, rests on no sufficient 
foundation. It is, however, enough for this romantic 
prince's undying renown, that, having acquired the 
secret of producing the necessary ground by some 
means or other, most probably from Von Siegen, he 

* The tear-shaped pieces of glass (Lachrima? Vitrere), which resist 
hard blows applied at the thick end, yet fly to pieces the moment 
a fragment is broken off the fine end, were first brought to England 
by Prince Rupert, and are called popularly ** Prince Rupert's drops." 


not only introduced the process into England, but 
executed himself several remarkable engravings in the 
style, one of which, known as '' The Great Execu- 
tioner" (dated 1658), after Spagnoletto,"^ to distin- 
guish it from a smaller plate containing the head only 
of the same figure, remains to this day as a powerful 
and wonderful example of the method. It is curious 
that, with the partial exception of Germany, *nd a 
few isolated instances in other countries, mezzotint 
should have been practically confined to England ; 
the very name is not recognised elsewhere. Germany 
uses the word " Schabkunst," scraping art ; the French, 
" La maniere noire," the black manner ; and Italy, 
" L'incisione a fumo," engraving in smoke or black, f 

Before the discovery of the new method, all en- 
graving consisted of an arrangement of lines varied 
occasionally by dots, which had to be cut into the 
polished copperplate either directly by the graver or 
indirectly by the use of acid. Untouched by either 
grave'r or acid, the polished plate would thus, under the 
ordinary process of copperplate printing (rubbing in 
the ink by a suitable dabber and then cleaning off all 
the ink not held fast by in-dents), print white ; mezzo- 
tint reverses the process. The plate, instead of being 
polished when the engraver commences his work. 

* This print represents a tall, powerful-looking man, standing with 
naked sword in one hand, and holding up in the other the head of St. 
John the Baptist. 

f Other names given to mezzotint out of England are : Schwarz- 
kunst, black art ; La maniere anglaise, L'incisione a foggia nera, 
engraving in black fashion or manner. 


presents a close, fine, file-like surface, which, if inked, 
wiped, and put under the heavy-pressure roller press, 
would now print off a deep uniform surface of bloomy 
black ; in place, therefore, of putting in lines or dots to 
hold the ink, the engraver has to scrape off the close 
file-like grain at the required parts, bringing up his 
highest lights by means of a burnisher ; the scraper 
and burnisher, not the graver, are consequently the 
principal tools used in executing mezzotint. In 
addition to the greater ease and rapidity with which 
an engraving could be made by this process, the 
range of effect or colour was immensely increased. 
All tones between pure white and the deepest black 
were now capable of realisation, and it is easy to see 
how greatly were enlarged the resources of the en- 
graver, whose special gift and claim as an original 
artist — a fact too often forgotten, or rather not suffi- 
ciently recognised — consist in his power of translating 
into various shades of black and white the numerous 
colours at the disposal of the painter. 

The forming or laying the grained surface, tech- 
nically called ground, is necessarily of the utmost 
importance, and is effected by a tool known amongst 
practical workers as "the rocker," called also 
" cradle," or " berceau " — the French equivalent — 
from the peculiar rocking motion given to it by 
the operator. The rocker is made of moderately 
thin and carefully tempered steel about two inches 
broad, and might be termed a stumpy, wide chisel 
were it not that it is curved (like a cheese-cutter) 
and notched or serrated at the cutting edge, which 


serration is caused by one side of the steel being 
indented into small fluted ridges running parallel 
upwards to the handle by which the tool is held, 
and somewhat presenting the appearance of a small- 
tooth-comb. On the plain smooth side the rocker 
is ground level to the edge, like other cutting tools, 
and sharpened on a stone or hone of suitable quality. 
In laying the ground this instrument is held firmly 
in the hand, the elbow resting on a convenient 
cushion, the serrated cutting edge placed on the plate 
with a slight inclination, and a steady rocking motion 
given to the tool, which slowly advances over -the 
surface of the copper or steel, forming on its way a 
narrow indented path. Side by side with this path 
another is made until the whole surface of the plate 
has been covered. The series of parallel paths is then 
repeated at a certain angle over the previous ones, and 
so on in regular progressive angular order until the 
required closeness of texture has been produced ; to do 
this it is necessary that the series of parallel paths — 
technically called a way — should be repeated in proper 
angular progression from sixty to a hundred times. 
As the continual friction of the elbow against the 
cushion caused the laying of a ground to become a 
severe and painful operation, particularly when the 
use of steel instead of copper plates came into practice 
early in the present century, a modification of this 
plan was introduced whereby the tool was fixed at 
the fitting angle into one end of a long pole, the other 
end being inserted loosely in a ring fixed on the 
board upon which the plate was placed ; the requisite 


rocking motion could then be easily given by the hand, 
and much painful labour avoided. The necessity for 
a good ground being so great, as the process became 
more and more general in England, a race of pro- 
fessional ground-layers grew up, who were paid at a 
certain rate per square inch for the surface thus 
covered. Much controversy has taken place as to the 
means by which Siegen, Prince Rupert, and the earlier 
mezzotinters produced their grounds, but there is little 
doubt that it must have been accomplished by some 
rude form of the present tool, and the curious appear- 
ance of the grain — as seen in very early mezzotints 
— must have been caused by the irregular crossings of 
the impressed layers, the necessity of regular angular 
procedure throughout the plate, in order to obtain an 
even tone, net having been recognised at first. 

Prince Rupert imparted the secret of the process to 
Wallerant Vaillant, a native of Lisle, a portrait painter 
(born 1623, died 1677) who practised the method 
with great success, working chiefly at Amsterdam, and 
leaving to posterity many prints of considerable artistic 
merit. Sir Christopher Wren is also credited with the 
execution of one of the earliest mezzotints, a negro's 
head with a collar round the throat, but there is no 
satisfactory authority for the various statements to 
this effect, the only sound fact being that this early 
print is an extremely interesting specimen of the 
process. The first English engraving executed in this 
style bearing a date is a portrait of Charles II. in an 
oval frame (Giul. Sherwin, fccitt 1669), by William 
Sherwin, who, there is some reason to believe, acquired 


his knowledge of the process directly from Prince 
Rupert. Sherwin, born about 1650, engraved also in 
line,^ and is said to have had the distinction of 
engraver to the king conferred on him by patent, an 
exceptional honour. 

Among the mezzotinters about this period, Abra- 
ham Blootelingh, born at Amsterdam in 1634, and 
distinguished both as a line engraver and etcher, came 
over to England in 1673, made use of the method 
with admirable success, and is said to have effected 
considerable improvement in the process of laying 
the ground ; his life-size head of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth, in an oval border or frame, is a masterpiece 
of the art. But, with the above exceptions, the works 
left by the majority of the early mezzotinters, both 
English and foreign, are more curious to the student 
than satisfactory to the artistic eye. It was not until 
the close of the century, when Isaac Beckett and John 
Smith had already begun to issue their grand series 
of portraits after Kneller, Lely, and other contemporary 
painters, that the full capabilities of the invention were 
realised and the foundation laid for the steady and 
uninterrupted progress of the art. John Smith's clear, 
bright, and intelligent face ought to be well known to 
Englishmen both from his own engraving and also 
from Kneller's admirable picture, from which it was 
taken, so long to be seen hanging in the Rubens and 
Rembrandt room of the National Gallery, and lately 

* This engraver must not be confused with John Keyse Sherwin, 
whose line engravings produced a century later are well known. 


fittingly transferred to the National Portrait Gallery. 
He was a pupil of Beckett and native of Northamp- 
tonshire, and died at Northampton in 1742, where 
there is a tablet to his memory in St. Peter's Church. 

When the eighteenth century opened, mezzotint 
had taken firm root in England ; Beckett and John 
Smith were in the plenitude of their powers ; Jean 
Simon, a Protestant refugee from France (born in 
Normandy, 1675), had taken refuge in England, and 
forsaking his original method of line, had adopted that 
of mezzotint with great success, while G. White was 
already giving the first indications of the advantages 
that might be gained by the introduction of etching 
into the method. John Faber, junior, was also estab- 
lishing his reputation, not only by his well-known 
portraits (which include the set of the Kit-cat Club^ 
and the Hampton Court beauties), but by many spirited 
fancy subjects after Mercier, and above all by an 
admirable print after Frank Hals of a man playing 
the guitar. Faber, the younger, was born in Holland 
in 1684, and brought to England when three years 
old by his father (also an engraver in mezzotint, but 
completely overshadowed by his son) ; he studied 
under Vanderbank, and was patronised by Kncller ; 

* This Club was instituted in 1703, the year after the accession of 
Queen Anne, to promote the Protestant succession, the members meet- 
ing at the ''Cat and Fiddle" in Shire Lane, Fleet Street, kept by 
Christopher Kat, from whom it took the name. The particular size 
known amongst artists as Kit-cat, just below the waist and not quite 
three-quarter length, also acquired its name from this series of por- 
traits, which were painted their particular length to suit the walls of 
Tonson's villa at Barn Elms, 


his works are peculiarly valuable as forming records 
of the painters — now so apt to be carelessly passed 
by^ — who lived between the time of Kneller and 
the rise of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and all left work of 
value to posterity. 

The modern sharp division between painters and 
engravers was unknown in those days ; the painter 
was only too glad to avail himself of the talent of the 
engraver to make his paintings known, and in many 
cases keep alive and hand down to after generations a 
name which otherwise might have died out and been 
forgotten. Painters of the present age ignore the 
engraver, and prefer the more tangible money results 
to be obtained from treating with a publisher for the 
purchase of their copyrights, adopting in this respect 
the teaching conveyed in the witty speech of Sir 
Godfrey Kneller, who, when reproached for his pre- 
ference, to other branches of painting, of the lucrative 
one of portraiture, replied : " Painters of history make 
the dead live and do not begin to live themselves till 
they are dead ; I paint the living and they make me 
live." Kneller might, however, have defended his 
practice on higher grounds, for portraiture, though 
often ignorantly decried, tests the powers of a great 
artist to the uttermost, and bequeaths to posterity a 
legacy of as valuable work as it is in the power of 
man to accomplish. It is interesting to note here 
that copyright in works of art was first obtained on 

* John Riley, Jonathan Richardson, Michael Dahl, John Closter' 
man, John Vanderbank, and Thomas Hudson, 


the behalf of engraving ; Hogarth, painter and en- 
graver, finding that so many of his prints — which, 
numerously distributed, could easily be pirated — were 
being copied, boldly and successfully asserted his 
rights in the courts of law, and was the means of 
obtaining from Parliament a Copyright Act to defend 
property in art. 

To Faber succeeded Thomas Frye and James 
McArdell, who were both born in the same city, 
Dublin, the birthplace of several other distinguished 
engravers. The life of Frye was eventful ; he came 
in early manhood to London in the company of his 
fellow-townsman Stoppelaer, who by turns became 
artist, actor, dramatic writer, and singer. Frye com- 
menced by painting and engraving portraits, and then 
took charge of the china manufactory just established 
at Bow, from the ruins of which afterwards arose those 
of Chelsea and Worcester ; there he remained fifteen 
years, and by his taste and skill improved the manu- 
factures in material form and ornamentation until, the 
business not succeeding and his health being injured 
by the heat of the furnaces, he had to take a journey 
to Wales to recruit, the expenses of which he paid 
by painting portraits, ultimately returning to London 
with some money in his pocket. Frye now took a 
house in Hatton Garden, where he painted minia- 
tures, life-size heads in oils and crayons, and in the 
space of about two years, 1760-2, executed in mezzo- 
tint the remarkable and justly esteemed series of 
life-size heads, which contain, among others, portraits 
of himself, his wife, and his mother. These were his 


last productions, as he died of a complication of 
diseases in 1762 at the age of fifty-two. Frye was 
industrious, amiable, and generous in character, 
patient in misfortune, and ingenious in accomplish- 
ing his objects; his likenesses of George III. and 
Queen Charlotte were obtained by frequent visits to 
the theatre, where it is said that the king and queen, 
on knowing his purpose, used kindly to turn their 
heads towards the artist to help him in his ta'sk ; 
other portraits were perhaps accomplished more by 
the exercise of imagination, as the fine ladies he would 
ask to sit were wont to refuse with the excuse that 
they did not know in what company they might find 
themselves placed. 

McArdell, the jovial companion of artists, the friend 
of Quin the actor, of whom Sir Joshua Reynolds 
observed, that even if the colours of his (Sir Joshua's) 
pictures faded his fame would be preserved by 
McArdell's engravings, marks an epoch in the art ; 
for he was the first to use vigorous etching to increase 
the effect of mezzotint. He died young, in June, 
1765, in his thirty-seventh year, and was buried in 
Hampstead Churchyard, where, according to Lysons, 
a short inscription to his memory recorded the facf^ 

McArdell's immediate successors were numerous, 
and of striking power and originality in the exercise 
of their art ; the more important of them were 
Richard Houston, John Greenwood, Edward Fisher, 

♦ The date of McArdell's birth is often erroneously giv^n as 171O 
instead of 1728-9 according to the above authority. 


John Spilsbury, Valentine Green, William Pether, 
Richard Brookshaw, John Blackmore, John Dixon, 
John Jones, Robert Laurie, and the two Watsons, 
James and Thomas, who were closely followed, in 
point of time, by William Dickinson, James Walker,"^ 
John Dean, John Young, the popular J. R. Smith 
(John Raphael), and perhaps the greatest of them all 
as an engraver, Richard Earlom. Many of these also 
practised in stipple, but their finer works in mezzotint 
completely overshadow these productions. It may be 
added that even the paintings of Sir Joshua Reynolds 
would hardly have been appreciated as thoroughly 
both in England and other countries, were it not for 
the admirable renderings of his pictures by the famous 
band of engravers practising during his lifetime. Gains- 
borough has undoubtedly suffered in this respect, for, 
unlike Wright of Derby, Hoppner, Opie, Morland, and 
Lawrence, few important mezzotints have been executed 
after his pictures ; and were the art to revive and the 
engravers to be found, a mine of wealth would be wait- 
ing to reward with its treasures well-directed labour. 

Earlom was born in- 1743, and at his death in 1822 
had reached his eightieth year; when fourteen years 
old he gained a premium from the Society of Arts, and 
attracted attention by making copies of Cipriani's 

* James Walker must not be confused either with Anthony and his 
brother William, or with the stipple and mezzotint engraver William 
Walker of the present century. James Walker's prints are not 
numerous, a great number of his plates and prints having been lost from 
the foundering of the vessel which M'as bringing them back to England 
from Russia, where Walker had lived for seventeen years, having been 
appointed in 1784 engraver to the Empress Catherine. 



pictures on the Lord Mayor's state carriage ; this led to 
his becoming the painter's pupil and to his acquiring a 
thorough knowledge of drawing. The Boydells em- 
ployed him to make drawings and engravings from the 
Houghton collection, and throughout his long life he 
continued to exercise unremittingly his laborious pro- 
fession ; his plates are numerous and of great excel- 
lence, while his skilful use of etching gives effect and 
variety to the many textures represented. Earjom 
engraved after various masters ancient and modern, 
and perhaps first showed the world the wide range of 
subjects which the style was capable of effectively re- 
presenting, such as — to mention only a few of the more 
important plates — Correggio's " Repose in Egypt," 
Rubens' " Son and Nurse," Van Dyck's " Duke of 
Arembergh on Horseback," Vanderwerff's " Bathsheba 
bringing Abishag to David," the " Fish, Game, Vege- 
table, and Fruit Markets," after Snyders and Long 
John,"^ Van Huysum's fruit and flower pieces, Zoffany's 
terribly realistic representation of a " Scene in the 
French Revolution on the lOth of May, 1793," and his 
" Life School at the Royal Academy," Wright of 
Derby's " Blacksmith's Shop " and ** Iron Forge," and 
the six plates after Hogarth, " Marriage a la Mode." 

The renown acquired by the works of English mezzo- 
tinters gradually attracted the notice of other nations 
— particularly Germany — where the style had almost 
died out, and many foreign engravers came to this 

* A painter more generally known as Langen Jan, born at Munster 
in 1610, the correct name being John or Johann van Bockhorst ; the 
name, however, appears as above in the engraving. 


country, amongst others, J. G. Haid and the Viennese 
Jacobe,who not only executed valuable works in Eng- 
land, but were the cause of a partial renewal of the 
method in their own countries. The Austrian Pichler 
(born 1765, died 1806) finished in pure mezzotint 
many plates of exceptional merit, while his fruit and 
flower pieces after Van Huysum rival the masterpieces 
of Earlom after the same painter. 

During the same period the English school had 
been making rapid strides in the other branches of 
copperplate engraving, line, stipple, and etching. Line, 
which to this day is considered by many as the highest 
style of the art, and which most certainly is well fitted 
to render the human form with grace and purity of 
outline and detail, has notwithstanding to overcome 
the difficulty of adequately expressing the various 
shades of colour and texture, and above all of realising 
the due effects of atmosphere and distance, a serious 
matter where the accessories are of importance or where 
landscape enters largely into the composition of the 
picture. It is, therefore, not surprising that, with 
mezzotint at hand with its wide range of capabilities, 
there should be comparatively few English engravers 
of eminence devoting themselves to line. 

Hogarth, who was born in 1697, and began life as 
an engraver of arms and cyphers, naturally employed 
the method of line to give expression to his bold and 
vigorous designs, and in this was assisted by Luke 
Sullivan, who had been a pupil of Thomas Major. 
Major (born 1720) had spent some years in Paris 
engraving after Berghem, Wouvermans, and others ; 


he was an artist of skill, and lived to a considerable 
age, holding for forty years the office of seal engraver 
to the king, and being the first associate"^ engraver 
elected by the Royal Academy. 

In the year 1730, Vivares, who was a Frenchman 
by birth, and who, in spite of natural artistic talents, 
had been apprenticed to a tailor, came to England at 
the age of eighteen and studied under Chatelain,an 
artist of French Protestant parentage, but bom in 
London. Vivares soon surpassed his master, acquired 
great renown for his many fine plates of landscape 
and sea-scenes, and became a member of the Society 
of Artists ; he lived for thirty years in Great New- 
port Street, and was buried in Paddington Church- 
yard in the year 1780. 

It is, however, from the pre-eminent excellence of the 
line engravings of Strange, Woollett, and Sharp that 
the right of England to a place in the hierarchy of the 
art has been conceded by other nations. Sir Robert 
Strange, descended from an ancient Scottish family, 
was born at Orkney in 1721, and served an apprentice- 
ship of six years to Richard Cooper of Edinburgh. In 
this city Strange started as an engraver on his own 
account; when the civil war broke out he joined 
the side of the Pretender, engraved a half-length por- 
trait of him, and was appointed engraver to this prince ; 
after the battle of Culloden, in which he is said to 

♦ On the foundation of the Royal Academy in 1768, Bartolozzi, to 
the exclusion of Strange and Woollett, was admitted one of the first 
forty members with full membership ; all engravers afterwards up to 
the year 1855 could only be elected as associate members. 



have taken part, Strange escaped to Paris, and had 
there the advantage of studying under Le Bas. In 
175 1 he returned to England, and established himself 
in London, where his talents were readily recognised 
and appreciated. On the accession of George III., 
Strange refused the commission to engrave whole- 
length portraits of the king and his Prime Minister, 
Lord Bute, thereby giving great offence, which, to- 
gether with the remembrance of his former adventures, 
made Strange think it prudent to leave the country 
for a time ; therefore, to turn to good account even 
such untoward circumstances, he determined to in- 
crease the knowledge of his art by travelling through 
the continent. In Italy he produced some of his 
finest engravings after Titian, Raphael, Correggio, 
Domenichino, Guido, and Van Dyck ; his talent was 
everywhere acknowledged ; he was elected member 
of the Academics of Rome, Florence, Bologna, Parma, 
and Paris; and, on his return to London, by his en- 
graving after West of the apotheosis of the king's three 
children, who had died in infancy, he regained the 
royal favour and received the distinction of knighthood. 
Sir Robert Strange was a member of the Incorpo- 
rated Society of Artists, but was very hostile to the 
Royal Academy, deeply and justly resenting their ex- 
clusion of engravers from full membership. During 
the later part of his life he lived in Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he died in 1792. He was 
buried in St. Paul's Churchyard, Covent Garden. 

Strange had chiefly devoted himself to classical 
subjects and the delineation of the human form, 


Woollett, on the other hand, took up the branches of 
landscape and history, and by his skill of touch and 
persistently intelligent labour produced such results 
as were sufficient to call forth ungrudging praise from 
all competent judges, not only in his own country, but 
abroad. Among Woollett's most celebrated plates are 
the " Fishery," the " Battle of La Hogue," and the 
" Death of General Wolfe." In the printing of the last 
plate an accident occurred after* a few proofs had been 
taken ; a printer in careless fun taking up a hammer, 
cried out, "General Wolfe seems dying, Fll finish 
him ; " saying this, he suited action to word, and unin- 
tentionally brought the hammer down on the face of 
the general, thus destroying by the freak of a moment 
the work of days of patient labour. It is said that 
Woollett cried on hearing the news ; the painter, his 
art once learnt, fired by imagination, can by rapid 
strokes of his brush give effect to his will, while the 
engraver only attains his end by months of unremit- 
ting and trustful toil. 

Woollett was born at Maidstone in 1735, and was 
apprenticed to John Tinney, who is now best known 
as having been the master of three distinguished 
pupils, Anthony Walker, John Browne, and Woollett 
himself Anthony Walker engraved the well-known 
" Law and Physic " after Ostade, and the figures in 
the print of " Niobe," Woollett's first work of import- 
ance. He was the brother of the William Walker who 
greatly increased the effect of etching by re-biting, 
and it is said that Woollett, when making use of the 
process, was wont to exclaim, " Thank you, William 
U 2 


Walker.""^ Woollett lived in London all his life in 
the neighbourhood of Rathbone Place, where, when 
he had finished a plate, he used to celebrate the event 
by firing a cannon from the roof of his house ; he died 
in 1785, and a tablet f was placed to his memory in 
the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

William Sharp was the son of a gunmaker in the 
Minories, where he was born in 1749, and afterwards 
apprenticed to Barak Longmate, a notable heraldic 
engraver, with whom Sharp's first essay as an appren- 
tice was engraving pewter pots. Sharp completed 
the plate of West's "Landing of Charles II.," left 
unfinished by Woollett at his death, while many will 
know one of his finest works, the " Doctors of the 
Church," after Guido. Although he never left England, 
his prints were celebrated throughout Europe ; he was 
elected honorary member of the Imperial Academy 
at Vienna and of the Royal Academy at Munich, but 
like Woollett, Strange, and Hall, was not recognised 
by the English Royal Academy. His religious and 
political views were peculiar, and being considered a 

* This engraver was in no way related to the better-known stipple 
and historical engraver of the same name who flourished in the present 

t Woollett was buried in Old St. Pancras Churchyard ; on a plain 
tombstone which marks the spot were found one day written in pencil 
the two lines — 

" Here Woollett rests, expecting to be sav'd, 
He graved well, but is not well engrav'd." 

Shortly afterwards a subscription was raised, to which Benjamin West 
and John Boydell contributed, for the purpose of erecting the above- 
mentioned tablet which now stands in the West Cloister, 


dangerous character, he was summoned before the 
Privy Council, where at length, annoyed by repeated 
and, as he considered, irrelevant questions, Sharp is 
said to have deliberately pulled out of his pocket a 
prospectus of his engraving of the celebrated Polish 
general and patriot Kosciusko, and handing it to the 
council, requested their names as subscribers ; this 
and his frank manner relieved him from the unpleasant 
predicament in which he found himself placeij. Sharp 
also engraved a portrait of Richard Brothers — a 
fanatic whose prophecies and writings excited atten- 
tion at the time — with the title of " Prince of the 
Hebrews," and wrote underneath : " Fully believing 
this to be the man whom God has appointed, I 
engrave his likeness." Though successful and in- 
dustrious in his art. Sharp died in comparative poverty 
in the year 1824 at Chiswick. 

Among other distinguished men who worked in line 
during this period must be mentioned James Heath, 
Anker Smith, John Keyse Sherwin, Francis Legat, 
Thomas Morris — a pupil of Woollett's — who engraved 
the fine views of the Monument, seen from Fish Street 
Hill, and St. Paul's Cathedral from Ludgate Hill, and 
lastly the unfortunate William Wynne Ryland, who 
engraved the portraits of George HI. and Lord Bute, 
which Strange had refused to undertake, and who, 
though of greater eminence in line, is credited with 
bringing into notice in England the stipple manner 
of engraving. Ryland finally ended an adventurous 
career by being hanged for forging two bills on the 
East India Company, and by his death — notwith- 


standing all efforts to obtain a reprieve — ^justified words 
used in relation to the event : " Popes and monarchs 
have pardoned men who had committed crimes of the 
deepest dye — even murder — in consideration of their 
talents as artists ; but Ryland lived in England, the land 
of trade and commerce, and had committed an offence 
against the laws of money, the god of its idolatry." 
Nor during the history of this period ought the 
names of Thomas Worlidge, David Deuchar, and the 
ingenious Captain Baillie to be omitted; Worlidge in 
the early part, and Deuchar at the close of the cen- 
tury, etched each in his own style with precision and 
effect, while William Baillie, an Irishman and retired 
cavalry officer (born 1723, died 18 10), etched and 
worked in mezzotint with equal happiness and success. 
William Blake (born 1757), poet, engraver, and 
painter, stands alone. In engraving — the laborious art 
by which he was content to live — he has executed 
admirable works, apart from his own peculiar methods, 
both in line, as shown in the portrait of Lavater, and 
in stipple, as in the " Industrious Cottager," after 
Morland ; as poet and painter he has left songs and 
designs which, if soaring higher than men can follow, 
or even his own powers of hand and mind sufficiently 
express, remain for ever to arouse the wonder and 
excite the imagination of posterity. Though he lived 
in poverty, and oppressed with cares, he was always 
cheerful and beloved by all who knew him intimately ; 
he was ever at work while life lasted, and died in 
1827, as he had lived, a righteous and happy man. 
He was laid in Bunhill Fields burying-ground, but 


the spot where he was burled is marked by no tomb- 
stone, nor can it now be actually identified ; but who 
that has looked at the portrait engraved by Jeens 
from Linnell's wondrous miniature can ever forget the 
face of the poet, engraver, and painter, William Blake ? 
Before speaking of the branch of engraving known 
by the name of stipple, it would be well to say a 
few words as to the mode of printing in colour, so 
prevalent at one time, and of the connection which 
the works of Kirkall had in relation to the method. 
Edward Kirkall, born at Sheffield in the year 1722, 
published a set of plates, in the printing of which he 
made use both of mezzotint and etching on copper- 
plate combined with wood blocks (that is to say, one 
printing was from a copperplate, the remainder from 
wood blocks), in order to give variety of colour to 
a set of chiaroscuros and other engravings which he 
executed at that time. His plan differed from that 
of Leblond in that he used only one copperplate 
printing, the other tints being given by wood blocks ; 
the results were interesting and effective, partaking 
more of the character of chiaroscuros, the name he 
himself gave to them. Apart from the failure of 
Leblond to realise his ingenious idea that, by the con- 
secutive and proper superposition of three layers of 
primitive colours, every shade of colour might be pro- 
duced in the print, there still remained another fatal 
defect in the process : all his colours were impressed 
by copperplate printing, that is, he made use of three 
plates successively printed one after the other on the 
same sheet of paper. Now a person who can realise 


the heavy pressure under which a copperplate has to 
pass so as to force it into the damp paper, in order 
that the paper should extract the ink from the grain 
in which it is held, will be able to see that the second 
and third printing — no matter how accurate the re- 
gister — must crush the grain or burr given to the 
paper by the previous printing and thus destroy the 
beauty of the engraver's work. Notwithstanding the 
really remarkable results produced by Leblond, this 
fatal imperfection mars all the engravings he has left 
executed in this manner. The copperplates which 
were printed in colour and carried to such perfec- 
tion, particularly in England, about the close of 
the eighteenth century, were printed from one plate, 
generally executed in stipple, and the various tints or 
colours carefully rubbed in by the printer, who used 
for this purpose a sort of stump instead of the ordi- 
nary dabber. Whatever artistic harmony in colour 
might be produced was therefore partially the work, 
and to the credit of the printer ; the printed impres- 
sions were in addition generally touched up afterwards, 
and in some cases almost entirely coloured by hand. 
Every impression printed in colours necessarily varies ; 
some are really exquisite in their delicacy of tone and 
assemblage of shades, while others are contemptible 
in their staring vulgarity. Kirkall engraved an elabo- 
rate ornamental form on which to give a receipt to 
his subscribers for these engravings ; one of which, 
running thus, "Receipt from Sir Hans Sloane of 
one guinea as part payment for twelve prints in 
chiaroscuro which he (Kirkall) promises to deliver 


when finished on payment of one guinea more," can 
be seen at the British Museum, and will give some 
idea of the moderate remuneration artists of those 
days were content to receive for their valuable labour. 
The rise of stipple as a separate style took place 
in the middle of the eighteenth century, and although 
the coming of Bartolozzi to England gave it so great 
an impetus, it is necessary to point out that the works 
of the school which goes by his name by ng means 
show the capabilities of the method. The aim of Bar- 
tolozzi and his followers was essentially prettiness; to 
this all their efforts tended, and for this stipple was a 
convenient medium. The very printing in red,recently 
so popular, is barbarous in its ineffectiveness, plates so 
printed being deprived of a great part of their proper 
ranges of light and shade. The more serious work in 
this method was accomplished by other engravers, of 
whom may be specially mentioned Thomas Gaugain, 
Anthony Cardon, Caroline Watson, and, later on in 
the present century, William Walker, who carried the 
style to the highest point ever reached or likely to 
be reached. Engraving in stipple — that is, putting 
dots into the plate in place of lines — was, however, no 
new invention ; from early times line engravers had 
placed dots in the interstices of their crossed lines 
to give solidity and greater effect. Ottavio Leoni, a 
Roman painter, had used the method freely in a set 
of plates of distinguished artists, which he engraved 
in the years 162 1-5, executing the heads, with the 
exception of the hair, entirely in stipple ; and early 
in the century French engravers made use of the 


same means to give effect to many of their flesh 
textures. The crayon style of engraving introduced 
by Demarteau, and the feeble English manner known 
as chalk, which had only a limited reign, are but 
modifications of the style. 

Francesco Bartolozzi,the life-long friend of Cipriani 
(born in 1725 at Florence), was educated in engraving 
at Venice by Joseph Wagner, and like Cipriani, who 
had preceded him, came over to England in 1764. 
His reputation was already established there ; he was 
appointed engraver to the king with a salary of ^300 
a year, became one of the first forty full members 
of the Royal Academy (1768), and was the only 
engraver admitted to the honour down to the year 
1855. Bartolozzi remained in England for thirty- 
eight years, continuously producing his innumerable 
and well-known plates ; at length, in 1802, seduced by 
the offer of a house, pension, and a knighthood, he 
went, at the age of seventy-seven, to Lisbon, where he 
died in 181 5, having reached his pinety-first year, and 
working at his profession to the last. John Ogborn, 
Cheesman, Thomas Ryder. Chapman, Agar, T. Burke, 
and the delightful P. W. Tomkins — who, with the late 
C.H.Jeens, maybe called the miniaturist of engravers — 
were all followers more or less of his school. An ad- 
mirable draughtsman and perfect master of the graver, 
Bartolozzi was in addition able to infuse a certain 
grace and beauty into the trivial work by which he is 
best known ; but he has done work of a higher stamp, 
and some of his line engravings, such as " Clytie," 
the " Death of Dido," the portraits of Lord Thurlow 


and Martin van Juchen in full armour (worthy of the 
graver of Pontius or De Jode), make all who care for 
the art regret that so talented an artist gave the 
greater part of his time and attention to producing 
prints which, though graceful and pleasing, charm but 
for the moment and leave no permanent impression. 

This, the Augustan era of English engraving, saw 
also the rise of the talented and genial Thomas Bewick 
(born 1753, died 1 828), who made the domain of natural 
history his own, and in addition to executing some 
interesting copper plates, has by his exquisite wood- 
cuts after his own drawings entitled England to claim 
her place amongst the greatest artists in that form of 
engraving. The Boydells, too, had established their 
celebrated firm ; both were engravers, John in line, 
and Josiah, his nephew (a pupil of Earlom), in mezzo- 
tint. John Boydell was born in 17 19, and established 
himself first (in 1752) at the sign of the "Unicorn," 
corner of Queen Street, Cheapside, afterwards at 90 
Cheapside, and finally took additional premises in 
Pall Mall for the Shakespeare Gallery. Josiah was 
born in 1752, succeeded on his uncle's death (1804) to 
the business, and died in 1 817. A great proportion 
of the best prints of this period will be found to bear 
the addresses of these famous publishers and engravers. 

The last years of the eighteenth and the com- 
mencement of the present century witnessed the death 
of many of the famous engravers already mentioned. 
It was now that the Birmingham school of line arose, 
and, urged by the influence of J. M. W. Turner, 
executed their delicate line engravings after that 


famous painter. William Radclyffe was the founder 
of this school, and was followed by his son Edward, 
Robert Brandard, J. T. Willmore, E. Goodall, R. 
Wallis, William Miller, and others. Sharp, Anker 
Smith, James Heath, Earlom, Dickinson, Young, and 
J. R. Smith still remained for a time, but much of 
their best work was already done. William Ward, ap- 
prenticed to J. R. Smith, his brother James, the noted 
animal painter, Charles Turner and Samuel William 
Reynolds had also appeared to carry on and bring 
to its fullest development the great British school of 
mezzotint. William Ward, born in 1766, by his series 
of engravings after George Morland — whose sister he 
married — has made the names of the painter and 
engraver almost indissoluble, each having contributed 
to the immortality of the other. James, the painter 
and Royal Academician, born in 1769, studied under 
his brother, with whom he served an apprenticeship 
of nearly nine years ; his plates of " Cornelius the 
Centurion " after Rembrandt, Sir Joshua's " Mrs. 
Billington as St. Cecilia," and the studies after nature 
of heads and feet of ducks, ducklings, geese, and 
calves, are among the finest works executed in the 
method. James lived to a great age, dying in 1859 ^^ 
his ninety-first year, having survived his brother and 
also a nephew, William James Ward. The last-named 
was likewise a good mezzotint engraver, but unfor- 
tunately died in the prime of life in the year 1840. 

Charles Turner was born in the same year as S. W. 
Reynolds (1773), and survived the latter by more than 
twenty years ; his prints are very numerous, and 


comprise a great variety of subjects. The large up- 
right mezzotint of Sir Joshua's group of the Marl- 
borough family, with the two younger children in 
front, one holding a mask, the other shrinking back 
in fright, is deservedly well known, as is also his fine 
rendering of '' The Shipwreck " after J. M. W. Turner, 
published in 1807. Other characteristic prints which 
may be mentioned are " Black and Red Game," after 
Elmer; "Pheasants," after Barenger; the portraits 
of " Alexandra, Empress of Russia," after Monier ; 
"Lord Newton," after Raeburn ; and a marvellous 
life-size head of Salvator Rosa's " St. Francis," 
engraved in 1805. Turner lived till the year 1857, 
when he died at his house in Warren Street, Fitzroy 
Square, at the age of eighty-three. 

Samuel William Reynolds, one of the most gifted 
men who ever applied themselves- to the engraver's 
art, studied mezzotint under C. H. Hodges ; he com- 
menced his comparatively short career both as painter 
and engraver, and exhibited for several years at the 
British Institution. Endowed with singular powers 
of fascination, Reynolds seems to have attracted and 
kept fast the friendship of all with whom he became 
acquainted, irrespective of their particular social 
surroundings. Samuel Whitbread, the distinguished 
Member of Parliament, of old Drury Lane Theatre 
renown, was his intimate and kindest friend ; Sheridan 
and Edmund Kean played at Pope Joan with his 
daughters, and the very printer of his plates fifty 
years after Reynolds' death would grow bright when 
recalling his memory, saying, "He was the prince 


of engravers." He gave lessons in drawing to the 
daughters of George III., who wished to make him 
their equerry, and afterwards an important post with 
a salary of £goo a year was offered him, but both 
these offers were refused. 

It is from the technical skill and firm daring which 
Reynolds displayed in his prints, and the intelligent 
use he made of the means at his command, that his 
name as an engraver remains pre-eminent ; the " Fal- 
coner," " Vulture and Snake," " Heron and Spaniel,'^ 
and " Leopards " after Northcote ; the " Duchess of 
Bedford " after Hoppner ; the " regal " whole-length 
of the unfortunate Princess Charlotte ; the large and 
exquisitely finished etching from Rembrandt's famous 
picture of " The Mill ; " and the " Land Storm "— 
known also as the " Mail Coach in a Storm" — after 
George Morland, are but a few of the many prints 
which show the power and versatility of the engraver. 
In the last-named print (published 1798), where the 
resources of mezzotint and etching combined have 
been used to fullest purpose, the familiar identity of 
the painter has been almost hidden under the massive 
effects of light and shade shown in the landscape, 
where amidst lightning flash and rushing wind the 
terror-stricken horses are seen dashing madly onward. 

When Reynolds went to Paris in 1826, artists 
there were astonished at his paintings and the effects 
that he produced. Sixdeniers and Maile studied 
with him, and several plates bear their combined 
names ; unfortunately both these engravers, excel- 
lent as they were as mezzotinters, chiefly engraved 


after painters whose productions partook of a frivo- 
lous and somewhat free character. Reynolds, how- 
ever, left more permanent marks of his stay in the 
French capital by executing there the large plates 
of Gericault's " Wreck of the Medusa," Horace Ver- 
net's " Mazeppa," and the masterly representations of 
Charlet's characteristic types, the "Village Barber" 
and the " Rag Picker." In the last two the technical 
handling is so free that it would almost seem as if the 
scraper had been used with the same facility as chalk 
on paper. In reference to this there is a story extant 
that Reynolds once scraped a large whole-length 
portrait in a day and a night ; the story is true, but it 
is also true that it is one of his worst plates. 

Shortly before his death Reynolds was greatly 
struck with Constable's picture of "The Lock," and 
resolved to engrave it at his own cost ; writing to Con- 
stable on the arrival of the picture, he says : — " I have 
been before your picture for the last hour. It is no 
doubt the best of your works true to nature, seen and 
arranged with a professor's taste and judgment. The 
execution shows in every part a hand of experience ; 
masterly without rudeness, and complete without 
littleness ; the colouring is sweet, fresh, and healthy ; 
bright not gaudy, but deep and clear. Take it for all 
in all, since the days of Gainsborough and Wilson no 
landscape has been painted with so much truth and 
originality, so much art, so little artifice." But he 
did not live to fulfil his intention, for while still full 
of hope and high purpose for the future, Reynolds 
was suddenly stricken with paralysis, and died at his 


house in Bayswater in the year 1835. This sudden end- 
ing was the cause of his son — Hkewise named Samuel 
William — forsaking painting to finish some of his 
father's plates^ and ultimately continuing with success 
the practice of mezzotint on his own account. Rey- 
nolds^ daughter Elizabeth, who married the stipple en- 
graver William Walker — though chiefly known by her 
miniatures and other paintings — also engraved in early 
life.^ Although there are no authentic records of the 
pedigree, S. W. Reynolds always asserted his collateral 
relationship to Sir Joshua Reynolds, and his son often 
mentioned that his father, when quite a youth, called on 
Sir Joshua, who, during the conversation that ensued, 
remarked to Reynolds, " Then you are my cousin." 

Other engravers of eminence that flourished during 
this period are, in line, the Bromleys, John Landseer 
and his sons, Charles Heath, William B. Cooke and 
his brother George,f John Burnet (celebrated as 
painter, engraver, and author), Richard Golding, and 
John Scott ; in stipple, William Bond, Thomas Wool- 
noth, and James Hopwood ; in mezzotint, Henry 
Dawe, William Say, Henry Meyer, George Clint, and 
his pupil Thomas Lupton, who, for his introduction 
of soft steel instead of copper as the medium for 
mezzotint engraving, received in 1822 the gold Isis 
medal from the Society of Arts. 

* Opie painted a life-size head of S. W. Reynolds, and of his 
daughter Elizabeth as *' Red Riding Hood " (exhibited at the winter 
exhibition of the Royal Academy, 1876) ; this portrait of herself 
Elizabeth engraved in mezzotint at the age of fourteen, 

t Father of the late E, W. Cooke, R.A. 


The method of stipple was meanwhile slowly 
dying out, but, as often happens when some particular 
art seems about to expire, this was the very time 
when the capabilities of the style were shown in the 
highest perfection. William Walker, born in Mussel- 
burgh in the year 1791, served an apprenticeship 
to three engravers, Mitchell, Stewart, and Thomas 
Woolnoth, and choosing stipple as his method of 
interpretation, in his portraits of Sir Walter Scott, 
Raeburn, and the Earl of Hopetoun, justified his 
choice by executing the finest works that were ever 
accomplished in the style. He astonished the mezzo- 
tinters of the period — who told him that, do what he 
could, he would never make stipple equal mezzotint 
in colour^ — by the amount of force, colour, and effect 
which he was able to give to these plates. It is 
needless to say that such work as this could only be 
accomplished at the expense of intense energy and 
persevering labour, qualities which were the essential 
characteristics of the Scotch engraver. Later on, 
when settled in London, and more particularly after 
the introduction of steel in place of copper, Walker 
chiefly practised mezzotint, in which, however, he made 
use of his previous experience, etching his subject first 
in stipple before laying the mezzotint ground. His 
plate of Burns, engraved in mezzotint by himself and 
Mr. Cousins, owes a great part of its renown to 
Walker's power of rendering likeness ; in regard to 

* Walker engraved the portrait of Raeburn with the special purpose 
of proving the contrary. 


this, the painter Alexander Nasmyth remarked, on 
seeing the finished print, " that all he could say was 
that it seemed to him a better likeness of the poet 
than his own picture." This particular quality of 
fidelity in likeness Walker carried out in all his after 
historical works ; for this purpose no trouble was too 
much, no labour too severe ; the engraving of the 
" Distinguished Men of Science assembled at the 
Royal Institution in 1807-8," which occupied a period 
of six years of unceasing research and labour, is a 
striking instance. This was practically his last plate. 
He died at the age of seventy-six, in the year 1867, 
at his house in Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, 
and was buried at Brompton Cemetery. 

The death of Reynolds in 1835 seems to mark 
roughly the closing period of English engraving as 
a great art ; two of his most renowned pupils were, 
however, still in the fulness of power, David Lucas 
and the present Mr. Samuel Cousins, R.A.^ Of 
Mr. Cousins, it is sufficient to relate that Reynolds, 
happening one day to be in the town of Exeter, saw 
some drawings in a shop window which caught his 
eye, and on going inside he learnt that they were by 
a lad of the name of Cousins, which incident led to 
Reynolds taking the youth to London and keeping 
him as his apprentice. Mr. Cousins* artistic genius, 
steady perseverance, and sterling integrity in all that 
he undertook, brought their full results, as shown in 

* John Lucas, the well-known portrait painter and also engraver 
in mezzotint, was likewise a pupil of Reynolds. 


the fine series of mezzotint engravings so widely 
known and highly appreciated, and his name may 
indeed be said to close worthily the long line of great 
British mezzotinters. 

David Lucas was born in the year 1802, and had 
the good fortune to meet in early life with Constable, 
between whom and Lucas was formed that intimate 
connection of painter and engraver which in earlier 
times had led to such great results. Failing Reynolds, 
Constable had applied to Lucas to be his engraver, 
and between them was completed the beautiful mezzo- 
tint series of English landscape ; Constable bore the 
expense and was ever in counsel with the engraver, 
going into the minutest details, thinking no trouble 
too much to produce a good result, down to the print- 
ing of the plates, which they often did themselves, 
Lucas having had a press erected at his house for the 
purpose. The execution of this series led to Lucas 
undertaking the large plate of "The Cornfield" at 
his own risk, and afterwards the companion picture of 
" The Lock " — referred to before-^finally culminating 
in his production of the superb engraving of Salisbury 
Cathedral as seen from the meadows, to which Con- 
stable himself gave the name of " The Rainbow."''^ 
During all this period constant intercourse and 

* The plate of Salisbury Cathedral was engraved at Constable's 
expense and published in 1837 by Messrs. Hodgson, Graves and Co., for 
the painter. After his sudden death in the same year it was sold at 
Foster's, Pall Mall, in 1838, and bought in for eighty guineas, hardly 
the price of two proofs at the present time. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Algernon Graves, the writer has had 
access to many manuscript notes written by David Lucas. 
V 2 


correspondence took place between the painter and 
engraver. At one time, Constable writes, " Although 
much admired, Salisbury is still too heavy ; the senti- 
ment of the picture is that of solemnity not gaiety, 
yet it must be bright, clear, alive, fresh, and all the 
front seen." At another, " The bow is a grand whole, 
provided it is clear and tender ; how I wish I could 
scratch and tear away with your tools on the steel, 
but I can't do it, and your quiet way is I know the 
best and only way." At length comes, " Dear Lucas, 
the print is a noble and beautiful thing entirely im- 
proved and entirely made perfect; the bow is noble, 
it is startling, unique." So hand-in-hand they worked 
on, the painter upbearing his helpmate the engraver, 
each aiding the other, little noticed by the public at 
the time, but slowly building up an imperishable fame. 
David Lucas died in 1881 in his eightieth year. 

In the middle of the century, inartistic mixture 
of styles, mechanical means replacing true work, 
exigencies of copyright, and above all the complete 
severance of the engraver not only from the painter 
but also from his only rightful patron the public, had 
worked its sure result. Some good men survived, 
such as Lewis, Atkinson, Doo, Robinson, J. H. 
Watt, R. Graves, J. Posselwhite, Lumb Stocks, Henry 
Cousins,* W. Giller, J. R. Jackson, and a few others ; 
but no young school had been forming to replace 
those dying out, and everything presaged the gradual 
extinction of engraving as one of the great arts. Has 

* Brother of Samuel Cousins, R.A. 


this lowest point been reached ? Perhaps, as with the 
beautiful art of miniature painting, which for a time 
on the advent of photography seemed gone for ever, 
yet still like some stream was only running on in 
hidden course underground to appear again and reach 
daylight, so may it happen with engraving. 

Within the last few years two engravers have 
produced prints worthy of any period of the art, the 
late C. H. Jeens and the present Mr. W. H. Sherborne. 
Some of the stipple miniature book illustrations which 
Jeens executed for Messrs. Macmillan and others, such 
as the gem medallions of Plato and Socrates, "Love 
and Death," Woolner's "Beautiful Lady," the portraits 
of Allan Ramsay, Charles Young, Mr. Ruskin's two 
Aunts, and above all William Blake, are engraved 
with the tender feeling and fine touch of the true 
artist. Mr. Sherborne, born in 1832, probably little 
known except by the few, originally a chaser and 
designer for jewellers and pupil of Pietro Gerometti, 
the Roman cameo engraver and medallist, in 1872, 
fired by hope and love of the art, forsook his own 
branch to follow that of engraving. Like all true 
artists, his mode of execution is his own. Apollo, 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1881, the head of 
Mr. Seymour Haden, the portraits of Phelps the 
Chelsea Waterman or Mrs. James Builth, and the 
interiors of Westminster Abbey, seen at the Painter- 
Etchers' Exhibition in the summer of 1885, arc works 
that will last, and are good examples of the engraver's 
powers, causing regret that Mr. Sherborne had not 
earlier turned his attention to an art the beauty of 


which he so truly feels. While engraving as a whole 
was decaying, one branch, that of etching, has been 
undergoing a revival, and the names of Mr. Seymour 
Haden, Mr. Philip Hamerton, and Mr. Whistler are 
world-known. They and their school have confined 
themselves to producing their own designs, while 
others, like Mr. David Law, Mr. Macbeth, and the 
Messrs. Slocombe, also translate the works of painters. 
But, whether as a vehicle for conveying an original 
design or translating that of another artist, etching 
is strictly limited in its powers ; it bears the same 
relation to the full art of engraving as sketching or 
drawing does to that of perfect painting ; suggestive, 
capable of exhibiting broad effects of light and shade, 
or indicative of the idiosyncrasy of the etcher, it is, of 
its very nature, incomplete, and acts but as herald to 
proclaim the greater results to be obtained by follow- 
ing out the art to its proper goal. 

The great impetus which Bewick's genius gave to 
the art of wood engraving at the commencement of 
the present century was carried onwards by his dis- 
tinguished pupils Luke Clennell, Charlton Nesbitt, 
and William Harvey, the latter of whom, in 1821, cut 
the large block of the death of Dentatus ( 1 5 in. x 1 1 J in.) 
from the picture of the erratic genius B. R. Haydon, 
under whom he was at that time studying drawing. 
Robert Branston, John Thompson and his brother 
Charles,* Jackson, and W. J. Linton, are names of 

* Better known in France, where he settled in 18 16, he died in the 
neighbourhood of Paris in 1843, and introduced there the mode of 


equal renown ; in fact, during the first half of the 
century, England may be said to have been supreme 
in the art. Gradually, however, the various mechanical 
processes for facilitating the commercial extension 
of the art such as electrotyping,^ photography, &c., 
brought here, too, their deteriorating effects, causing 
the engraver to become less of an artist and more of 
a mechanic. In delicacy of work and elaboration of 
detail, American artists now stand first among wood 
engravers ; but they attempt too much with the means 
at their command, and try to produce upon the com- 
paratively soft material, wood, the delicate fineness 
of line which can only be realised in perfection on 
metal. The extreme closeness of the lines, combined 
with the exigencies of rapid surface printing, dull 
more or less the minute interstices which ought to 
show pure white ; effect is lost, and, notwithstanding 
the excellence of the workmanship, the result becomes 
monotonous and wearying rather than pleasurable 
to the satiated eye. In etching also America takes 
high rank ; in addition to Mr. Whistler, the names 
of Messrs. J. Gadsby Chapman,, Gifford, Duveneck, 
F. S. Church, Pennell, Stephen Parrish, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Moran, are well known in Europe. 

In the complete styles of engraving, stipple, line, 
and mezzotint, although American engravers are little 
known out of their own country — a large enough 

cutting on the end of the grain instead of with the grain as was before 
the practice. 

* First introduced in 1840, although not in general practice until 
some years later. 


field, however, in which to exercise their talents — 
some good work has also been done ; in stipple, by 
David Edwin, Ion. B. Forrest, Gimbrede, and C. 
Tiebout ; in mezzotint, by Charles Wilson Peale, 
A. H. Ritchie, and John Sartain, who, after having 
worked under the direction of William Young Ottley, 
went from London to America in 1830 at the age of 
twenty-two ; and in line, by Asher Brown Durand ; 
Joseph Andrews ; the Smillies ; and Charles Burt, 
who is said to have been the actual engraver of the 
fine plate of Leonardo's " Last Supper," copied from 
Morghen's print of the same subject, and bearing the 
name of A. L. Dick as engraver. The lives of these 
and others not mentioned were often eventful and 
picturesque, and would repay study. Some leaving 
England, Scotland, or Ireland in early life to settle in 
the land of their adoption, had to struggle with diffi- 
culties, often teach themselves, make their own tools, 
like John Cheney, or like Charles Wilson Peale, turn 
their hands to whatever duty might present itself. 
Peale was a captain of volunteers, dentist, lecturer 
on natural history, saddler, watchmaker, silversmith, 
painter in oil, crayons, or in miniature on ivory, 
modeller in clay and wax, engraver in mezzotint, and 
to crown all, as his son was wont to say, a mild, 
benevolent, and good man. Many also devoted their 
talents to bank-note engraving, a branch of the art 
highly cultivated in the United States, in which the 
skill of the inventor and mechanic has been united 
with the grace and genius of the artist. As engravers 
in this particular style may be specially mentioned 


W. E. Marshall, J. W. Casilear, M. J. Danforth, 
Gideon Fairman, and Jacob Perkins, the latter of 
whom, with Fairman and the ingenious Asa Spencer, 
came over to England in 1818 to compete for the 
premium of ;^20,ooo offered by the Bank of England 
for a bank-note which could not be counterfeited. 
Although not successful, the Bank allowed them the 
sum of ;^5,ooo in consideration of their ingenuity and 
the trouble and expense which they had incurred in 
the matter. While Asa Spencer is to be credited 
with inventing the method of applying the geometric 
lathe ^ to engraving the involved patterns on bank- 
notes, Perkins has the honour of introducing the 
process of transfer by means of steel rollers. The 
portrait or other design is engraved in the usual 
manner on a die plate, which is then hardened ; a soft 
steel roller or cylinder is now rolled over the die 
with great pressure by means of a powerful machine, 
causing the cylinder to take off in its course the im- 
pression of the design in relief; this roller is now 
hardened in its turn, and by the use of similar means 
made to impress another soft steel die ; by repeating 
this process, any requisite number of plates can thus 
be reproduced the exact fac-similes of the original 
engraved die plate. Owing to the mechanical neces- 
sity that only a small surface of the roller should 
press on the die at a given moment, the diameter of 
the cylinder requires to be small, so that several of 

* On the principle of that which is known as "engine turning," as 
seen on the back of watch-cases. 


these dies, and consequently of the rollers, will be 
required to complete the entire plate from which the 
ultimate printing of the note is effected. 

Finally it may be well to conclude this brief 
account of the British school of engraving by call- 
ing attention to the considerations which ought to 
govern buyers of engravings ; buy only that which 
gives real personal satisfaction, distrust a seller's in- 
ducements, in price be ruled by the amount that can 
be justly afforded, reject alluring thoughts of future 
money gain (or be prepared to pay the sure penalty — 
destruction of natural artistic feeling and hope of 
further cultivation), and ever bear in mind the words 
of Constable to his engraver : " Tone, tone, my 
dear Lucas, is the most seductive and inviting quality 
a picture or print can possess ; it is the first thing seen, 
and like a flower, invites to the examination of the 
plant itself."^ 

* It is also necessary to point out that no impression damaged from 
course of time or printed from a worn-out plate can give any idea of the 
original engraving as a work of art. Other things being equal, proofs 
^x^ prima facie likely to be the best impressions, but a good print (that 
is a later impression), if in good condition, is far more valuable than a 
damaged or rubbed proof, however early the state may be. 

%* The writer of the Chapter on English Engraving desires to 
acknowledge the facilities kindly placed at his disposal by Mr, Sidney 
Colvin, Keeper of Prints and Drawings at the British Museum, and to 
express his recognition of the valuable aid afforded him by Mr. F. M. 
O'Donoghue, of the same department. 



Foreign Engravers practising in England are marked with an asterisk. 

b. stands for born ; d., died ; fl., flourished ; c, about. 


Raynalde, Thomas. 

,, Geminus, Thomas. 
,, *HoGENBERc;, Francis 

*HoGENBERG, Remigius. 

( Brother of above. ) 
Rogers, William. 

[7th ♦De Passe, Crispin. 

,, *De Passb, Magdalen. 
(Daughter of above.) 
„ ♦De Passe, William, 

(Son of above.) 
„ •De Passe, Simon. 

(Son of above.) 
,, Delaram, Francis. 
,, Ei.STRACKE, Reginald. 
,, Peake. Sir Robert. 

* Hollar, Wenceslaus. 
♦LoMUART, Peter. 

Faithorne, William. 
(Pupil of Sir Robert Peake.) 

Published in 1540 a book called "The Birth 
of Mankind," illustrated by copperplate 

Published in 1545 a translation of " Vesalius' 
Anatomy," written and illustrated wish copper- 
plates engraved by himself. 

Engraved in line a portrait of Queen Mary I, of 
England, bearing date 1555. (There are doubts 
as to the correctness of this date.) 

Engraved in line portrait of Matthew Parker, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, bearing date 1573. 

b. London c. 1545. Engraved in line a fine whole- 
length portrait of Queen Elizabeth, afterwards 
republished and reduced in size. 

b. Utrecht c. 1560. Line. Engraved and drew 
from lite. 

b. Utrecht 1583. Line. 

b. Utrecht c. 1590; fl. 1620-27. Line. 

b. Utrecht 1591 ; d. c. 1644. Line. His earliest 
work in England dated 1613. 

fl. c. 1620. Line. 

fl. c. 1620. Line. 

b. c. 1532 ; d. 1645. Line. Also painted por- 
traits in miniature. Master of engraver Faith- 
orne and painter Dobson. 

b. Prague 1607 ; d. London 1677. Etcher, 
finishing, when necessary, wiih fine graver. 

b. Paris 1612 ; came to England c. 1653. remain- 
ing for considerable number of years ; d. Pari.s. 
Line. Engraved series of twelve portraits 
called "The Countesses." 

b. London i6t6 ; d. London 1691. Line. 



17th *Vanderbank, Peter. 
(Pupil of DePoilly.) 

,, Barlow, Francis. 

Gavwood, Robert. 
(Pupil of Hollar.) 

♦LoGGAN, David. 
(Pupil of Simon de Passe.) 

Rupert, Prince. 

Sherwin, William. 

Oliver, John. 

(Nephew and pupil of 
Peter Oliver, miniature 
painter and etcher.) 
Place, Francis. 

ToMPSON, Richard. 
Browne. Alexander. 

♦Blootelingh, Abraham. 
(Pupil of Cornelius Visscher.) 

♦Valck, Gerard. 

(Pupil of Blootelingh.) 

White, Robert. 

(Pupil of David Loggan.) 

♦Vandervaart, John. 

♦Van Somer, Paul. 

(Pupil of John Van 
Somer, probably his 
Faithorne, William, junr. 
(Son of William Faith- 
Luttrell, E. 
(Said to have learnt me- 
thod of mezzotint from 
Blois, ground layer to 
Beckett, Isaac. 
(Attracted by Luttrell's 
works, learnt the me- 
thod of mezzotint from 
Lloyd, aprintseller, who 
is said to have obtained 
the secret from Blois, 
ground layer to Bloote- 


; came to England 


b. Paris ; of Dutch extraction 
c. 1674 ; d. Bradfield 1697. 

b. Lincolnshire 1626 ; d. London 1702. 
line engraver, and animal painter. 

b. c. 1630 ; d. c. 1711. Etcher and line engraver, 
chiefly of animal subjects. 

b. Dantzic c. 1630 ; d. London 1693. Line. Por- 
trait and architectural engraver and painter. 

b. 1619 ; d. 1682. Introduced mezzotint into 
England, and engraved some fine prints in the 
method, which were probably executed abroad. 

b. c. 1650; d. c. 1714. Engraved portrait of 
Charles II. 1669, the earliest dated print in 
mezzotint authentically engraved in England. 

b. 1616 ; d. T701. Glass painter; also engraved 
in mezzotint. 

[640 ; d. 1728. Mezzotint, line, etching. 
1670. A good many early mezzotint prints 

bear these two names, but only as publishers 
(exaidit not sculpsit), and there is great doubt 
if any were actually engraved by them. 
Browne wrote the " Ars Pictoria" in 1669, in 
which "The Manner or Way of Mezo Tinto " 
is described ; published by himself, Tompson, 
and another. 

b. Amsterdam 1634 ; d. c. 1695. Line and 
mezzotint. Came to England for a few 
years 1673. 

b. Amsterdam c. 1626; d. c. 1720. Mezzotint and 
line. Accompanied Blootelingh to England, 
not leaving until after 1680. 

b. London 1645 \ d. London 1704 Line. Por- 
trait draughtsman from life. 

b. Haarlem 1647 : d. London 1721. Mezzotinter 

and painter. Came to England 1674. 
b. Amsterdam 1649 ; d. London 1694. Mezzotint. 

b. London 1656 ; d. London 1686. Mezzotint. 

b. Dublin c. 1650 ; d. 
crayon portraitist. 

Kent 1653 ; d. 1719. 
dated between 1681 — I 

Mezzotinter and 

Mezzotint. Prints all 




17th Smith, John. 

(Pupil of Beckett and 
„ Williams, R. 

,, *DoRiGNY, Sir Nicholas. 

Lbns, Bernard. 
*Gribelin, Simon. 

,, LuMi.EY, George. 

(Friend of Francis Place.) 
,, White, George. 

(Son and pupil of Robert 
i8th 'Simon, John (or Jean). 

Vertue, George. 

♦Van Blheck, Peter. 
♦Faber, John, sen. 

,, ♦Faber, John, jun. 

(Son and pupil of above.) 

„ Hogarth, William. 

(First apprenticed to sil- 
„ Sullivan, Luke. 

■Baron, Bernard. 

(Pupil of Tardieu, the 
French engraver.) 
WoRLiDGE, Thomas. 

Bickham, George. 

♦Ravhnet, Francois Simon. 
(Pupil of Le Bas.) 
Frye. Thomas, 

Brooks, John. 

McARDtLL, James. 
(Pupil of John Brooks, 

b. Daventry 1652 ; d. Northampton 1742. Mezzo- 

b. Wales. Mezzotint. Prints dated c. 1680 to 

b. Paris 1657 ; d. Paris 1746. Line. Settled in 

London 171 1—24. Knighted by George L for 

his set of Raphael's cartoons, 
b. London 1659 ; d. 1725. Mezzotint, 
b. Blois 1661 ; d. England 1733. Line. Came 

to England 1680 ; engraved first complete set of 

Raphael's cartoons, 
b. York latter part of 17th century. Mezzotint. 

b. 1671 ; d. 1731-2. Mezzotint. Introduced 
slight etching into the method. Engraved also 
in line, and painted portraits. , 

b. Normandy 1675; d. London c. 1755. First 
engraved in line, then came to England and 
devoted himself to mezzotint. 

b. London 1684 ; d. London 1756. Line ; anti- 
quary, wrote notes on the history of arts and 
artists in England. Manuscripts now in the 
British Museum. 

b. Flanders ; d. 1764. Came to England 1723 

b. Holland ; d. Bristol 1721. Mezzotint ; also 
miniature painter. Came to England in 1687 
wilh his son. 

b. Holland 1684 ; d. London 1746. Mezzotint. 
Amongst others, engraved Kit Cat Club and 
Hampton Court Beauties. 

b. St. Bees, Durham, 1697 I ^- London 1764. 
Line engraver and painter. 

b. CO. Louth, Ireland, 1705 ; d. London 1771. 

Line. Assistant to Hogarth, and engraved 

some of his pictures, 
b. Paris c. 1700; d. London 1762. Line. Came 

to England in 1712. Employed by Hogarth. 

b. 1700; d. Han-.merf^mith 1766. Etcher and 
portrait painter. Chiefly resided at Bath. 

d. 1769. Line and etching, draughtsman. Pub- 
lished "The Universal Penman;" father of 
George, also an engraver and draughtsman. 

b. Paris 1706 ; d. Hampstead Road 1774. Line. 
Came to England a little before 1745, and set- 
tled in London. 

b. near Dublin 1710; d. London 1760. Mezzo- 
tmter and portrait painter, chiefly life size. 

b. Ireland ; d. London. Line and mezzotint. 
Master of McArdell and R. Houston. Left 
Dublin c. 1747, and set up a china manufactory 
at Battersea. 

b. Dublin c. 1729 ; d. London 1765. Mezzotint. 
F'irst made use of deep etching to give effect 
to the method. 




i8th *Canot, Peter Charles, 

,, Chatelaine, John Bap- 
tiste Claude. 

,, ''ViVARES, Francis 

(Pupil of Chatelaine.) 

,, TiNNEY, John. 

„ Major, Thomas, A.E. 
„ Cooper, Richard. 

Strange, Sir Robert. 
(Pupil of Richard Cooper, 
of Edinburgh.) 
Houston, Richard. 
(Pupil of John Brooks, 
of Dublin.) 
Baillie, William, Captain. 

♦Bartolozzi, Franc's, R.A. 
(Pupil of Joseph Wagner, 
of Venice.) 

Ogborne, John. 

(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
Walker, Anthony. 

(Pupil of Tinney.) 

Walker, William. 
(Pupil of his brother 

*CuNEGO, Domenico. 

Greenwood, John. 

Spilsbury, John. 

Dawe, Philip. 

Basire, James. 
(Pupil of Richd. Dalton, a 
draughtsman and en- 
graverof moderate note.) 
Taylor, Isaac. 

Fisher, Edward. 

b. France 1710 ; d. London 1777. Line ; chiefly 
sea views. Came to England 1740, where he 
remained for the rest of his life. 

b. London 1710 ; d. London 1771. Line and 
draughtsman. Of French Protestant parent- 
age. Master of Vivares, for whom also he 
worked later on. 

b. France 1709 ; d. London 1780. Line ; land- 
scape engraver. Came to London at the age 
of eighteen. 

d. 1761. Practised in London 1740-50, inline 
and mezzotint ; chiefly known as master of 
Woollett, Anthony Walker, and John Browne, 

b. 1720; d. London 1799. Line. First Associate 
engraver of the Royal Academy. 

b. Yorkshire ; d. Edinburgh 1764. Line and 
mezzotint. Practised in Edinburgh in 1730, 
and was the master of Strange. 

b. Pomona, Orkney, 1721 ; d. London 1792. 

b. Ireland 1721 ; d. London 1775. Mezzotint. 

b. Ireland 1723 ; d. 1810. Etching and mezzo- 

t'nt. Came to London 1741. Some years in 

the army, 
b. Florence 1725 ; d. Lisbon 1815. Stipple and 

line. Came to England 1764, remaining here 

till 1802. 

b. London c. 1725 ; d. c. 1795. Stipple and line. 

b. Salisbury 1726; d. London 1765. Line and 

b. Thirsk 1729 ; d. Clerkenwell 1793. Line ; 
introduced the process of rebiting into the 
practice of etching. 

b. Verona 1727; d. Rome 1794. Line. Came 

to England and engraved some plates for the 

b. Boston, America, 1729; d. Margate 1792, 

Mezzotint, etching, and painter. Afterwards 

became an auctioneer, 
b. 1730; d. London 1795. Mezzotint. Portrait 

painter. Gained premiums for mezzotint 1761 

and 1763 from Society of Arts; also printseller. 
d. c. 1802. Mezzotint and painter, said to have 

worked under Hogarth. Was a pupil of the 

painter Henry Morland. 
b. 1730 ; d. London 1802. Line. His father 

Isaac, his son Jame.s, and his grandson James, 

were also engravers. 

b. Worcester 1730; d. 1807. Line. His son 
Isaac was also an engraver. 

b. Ireland 1730; d. London c. 1785. Mezzotint. 





"Haid, Johann Gottfried. 
(Pupil of his father, J. 
Jacob Haid.) 

*Jacobe, Johann. 

Pether, William. 

(Pupil of Thomas Frye.) 
WooLLETT, William. 

(Pupil of Tinney.) 
Watts, John. 

Brookshaw, Richard. 

PuRCELL, Richard. 
(Pupil of John Brooks) 

Phillips, Charles. 

Ryland, William Wynne. 
( Pupil of-Ravenet.) 

Green, Valentine, A.E. 

Hall, ^ohn. 

(Pupil of Ravenet.) 
Black MORE, Thomas. 

Dixon, John. 

Laurie, Robert. 

Okev, Samuel. 

Watson, James. 

Browne, John, A.E. 
(Pupil of Tinney and 
Watson. Thomas. 
(Apprenticed to engraver 
on plate.) 

b. c. 1730; d. c. 1776. Mezzotint. Resided in 
London. Gained premiums from Society of 
Arts 1764 and 1773. 

b. Wurtemburg 1730 ; d. 1776. Mezzotint. 
Came to England when young, and worked 
for Boydell, afterwards returning to Germany. 
His father, Johann Jacob, and his brother, 
Johann Elias, were also good mezzotinters. 

b. Vienna 1733 ; d. 1797. Came to London to 
learn mezzotint, engraved some fine plates, 
1779—80, and then returned to Vienna. 

b. Carlisle 1731 ; d. 1821. Mezzotint. Painter 
in oil and miniature draughtsman. 

b. Maidstone 1735 ; d. London 1785. Line. 

Mezzotint. Engraved in London 1770—86 ; also 

a printseller. 
b. 1736 ; d. c. 1804. Mezzotint. ^Vent to Paris 

about 1772, where his works were greatly 

b. Dublin c. 1736; d. London c. 1766. Mezzo- 
tint. Came to London c. 1755. Also worked 

under the names of C. Corbutt and (probably) 

H. Fowler, 
b. 1737. Mezzotint. Worked chiefly after the 

old masters, 
b. London 1738 ; d. London 1783. Line and 

stipple ; also a printseller. Visited Paris c. 

1760, and is said to have studied under Le 

Bas. Was hanged for forgery, 
b. near Birmingham 1739 ; d. London 1813. 

Mezzotint. Engraved over twenty plates from 

Dusseldorf Gallery, 
b. near Colchester 1739 ; d. London 1797. Line. 

b. London c. 1740; d. c. 1780. Mezzotint. En- 
gravings bear date about 1769 — 71. 

b. Dublin c. 1740 ; d. early 19th century. Mezzo- 
tint. Practised in London, studied in Dublin 
under the painter F. West, a draughtsman of 
great power. 

b. London 1740; d. c. 180^. Mezzotint; also 
printseller. Gained premium Society of Arts 
1771, and one in 1776 for facilitating printing by 
mezzotint in colours. Spells his name Lowry, 
Lowery, Lowrie, Lawrie, and finally Laurie. 

fl. 1765 — 70. Mezzotint. Awarded premiums by 
Society of Arts in 1765 and 1767. Went to 
America in 1771, and settled at Rhode Island. 

b. Ireland 1740; d. London 1790. Mezzotint. 
Father of Caroline Watson. 

b. Essex 1741 ; d. Walworth 1801. Line. Land- 
scape engraver. 

b. London 1743 ; d. Bristol 1781. Mezzotint 
and stipple. Engraved "Windsor Beauties" 
after Lcly ; has been stated to be the brother 
of James W., b'.it no relation; partner with 
Dickinson as printseller. 




Tassaert, Philip J. 

Byrne, William. 

(Pupil of his uncle, a 
heraldic engraver, then 
of Aliametand of Wille, 
at Paris.) 

Earlom, Richard. 

DuNKARTON, Robert. 

(Pupil of Pether.) 
Cook, Thomas. 

(Pupil of Ravenet.) 

Dickinson, William. 

TowNLEY, Charles. 

Ryder, Thomas. 

(Pupil of Basire.) 
Walker, James. 

(Pupil of Val. Green.) 

Murphy, John. 

♦Gaugain, Thomas. 

(Pupil of Houston.) 
Holloway, Thomas. 

CoLLYER, Joseph, A.E. 

(Pupil of Anthony Walker 
Sharp, William. 

(Pupil of Barak Long- 
mate, engraver on plate.) 
Sherwin, John Keyse. 

(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
Burke, Thomas. 

(Pupil of Dixon.) 
Strvtt, Joseph. 

(Pupil of W. Wynne 
Doughty, William. 

Hudson, Henry. 

Dean, John. 
(Pupil of Valentine Green.) 

b. Antwerp ; d. London 1803. Mezzotint, also 
line. Came to England very young. Assistant 
to T. Hudson the painter. 

b. London 1743 ; d. London 1805. Line. Land- 
scape engraver. His son John and daughters 
Letitia and Elizabeth also engraved, and 
helped him in his plates. 

b. London 1743 ; d. London 1822. Mezzotint and 

stipple. Used etching with vigorous effect. 

Engraved a few plates under name of H. Birche ; 

some time a pupil of Cipriani, 
b. London 1744 ; d. early part of 19th century. 

Mezzotint. Engravings bear dates 1770 — 1811. 
b. c. 1744 ; d. c. 1818. Line. Engraved amongst 

others Hogarth's works under title " Hogarth 

b. London 1746 ; d. Paris 1823. Mezzotint and 

stipple. Awarded premium Society of Arts 

1767. For some time partner with Thomas 

Watson as printseller. 
b. London 1746. Mezzotint and stipple, also 

miniature painter. Worked at Berlin 1786 —92, 

then returned to London, 
b. 1746 ; d. 1810. Stipple. His son Thomas 

also engraved, 
b. 1748 ; d. London 1808. Mezzotint. In 1784 

went to St. Petersburg, became engraver to 

Empress of Russia, and returned to England 

in 1802. 
b. Ireland 1748 ; d after 1820. Mezzotint and 

b. Abbeville 1748 ; d. beginning 19th century. 

Stipple. Came very young to London, 
b. London 17^8 ; d. 1727. Line. Known chiefly 

from his series of Raphael's cartoons, 
b. London 1748 ; d. 1827. Line and stipple. 

b. London 1749 ; d. Chiswick 1824. Line. 

b. Sussex 1749; d. London 1790. Line, stipple, 
and painter. 

b. Dublin ; d. London 1815. Stipple and 

b. Essex Tj^g ; d. London 1802. Stipple. Author 
of "Dictionary of Engravers," "Sports and 
Pastimes of the English," &c. 

b. York ; d. Lisbon 1782. Mezzotinter, also por- 
trait painter. Engravings mostly dated 1779. 
Was a pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Sailed 
for Bengal 1780, but, captured by French and 
Spanish squadrons, was taken instead to Lisbon. 

b. London ; d. abroad ; fl. 1782 — 92. Mezzo- 

b. c. 1750; d. London 1798. Mezzotint. Prints 
dated 1776—89 at three addresses in Soho, 
at the last of which a fire destroyed nearly all 
his plates and stock. 




Jones, John. 

Parker, James. 
(Pupil of Basire.) 

Simon, Peter J. 
*Facius, George") 

Gottlieb. J 

Morris, Thomas. 
(Pupil of WooUett.) 

MiDDiMAN, Samuel. 
(Pupil of Byrne.) 

Saunders, J. 

♦Marchi, Giuseppe Filippo 

Smith, John Raphael. 

Bewick, Thomas. 

(Pupil of Beiiby, an en- 
graver at Newcastle.) 
Nutter, William. 

(Pupil of J. R. Smith.) 
Young, John. 

(Pupil of J. R. Smith.) 

Grozer, Joseph. 
Pollard, Robert. 
(Pupil of a silversmith.) 

Legat, Francis. 

Gillrav, James. 
(Pupil of heraldic en- 
Heath, James, A.E. 

(Pupil of CoUyer.) 
Blake, William. 
(Pupil of Basire.) ,. ^^ 
and of the name. ^ •''" i 
c^ I " ' 
Haward, Francis, A.E. 

Thew, Robert. 

Smith, Anker, A.E. 
(Pupil of James Taylor, 
who was brother and 
uncle respectively of 
the two Isaac Taylors, 
engravers of some note.) 

Shhppeard, George. 


d. 1797. Mezzotint and stipple. Father of 
George Jones (b. 1786), R.A., the painter. 

b. 1750 ;d. London 1805. Line. Joined William 
Blake in keeping a print shop in 1784. 

b. c. 1750 ; d. c. 1810. Stipple. 

b. Ratisbon c. 1750. Stipple. Came to London 
in 1766 at the request of Boydell. 

b. c. 1750 ; fl. 1795. Line. Engraved Views 
of St. Paul's and the Monument. 

b. 1750; d. London 1831. Line. Landscape 

fl. 1772—74. Mezzotint. 

b. Rome 1752 ; d. London 1808. Mezzotint. 

Brought to England 1769 bv Sir J. 'Reynolds, 

who employed him as an assistant, 
b. Derby 1752 ; d. Doncaster 1812. Mezzotint 

and stipple. Painter in miniature and crayons, 

and printseller. Father of Emma Smith the 

b. Northumberland 1753 ; d. Gateshead 1828. 

Wood engraver ; also copperplate. His 

brother John was likewise a wood engraver, 
b. 1754 ; d. London 1802. Stipple. 

b. 1755 ; d. London 1825. Mezzotint. Published 
catalogues with etchings of the Grosvenor 
(1820), Leigh Court (1822), Angerstein (1823), 
and Stafford (1826) Galleries. 

fl. 1786 — 97. Mezzotint. 

b. Newcastle-on-Tyne 1755 ; d. 1838. Etching, 
aquatint, and painter ; last surviving member ot 
Incorporated Society of Artists ; in 1836 gave 
over to Royal Academy the papers of the 

b. Scotland 1755 ; d. London 1809. Line. Studied 
under Alex. Runciman, the Edinburgh painter. 

b. Lanarkshire 1720 ; d. London 1815. Etcher 
and line. Caricaturist. 

b. London 1757 ; d. London 1834. Line. Father 

of Charles Heath, 
b. Broad Street, Golden Square, London, 1757 ; 

d. Fountain .Court, Strand ; buried Bunhill 

Fields, 1827. Line, stipple, and etching. Poet 
» and painter, 
b. 1750; d. London c. 1797. Mezzotint and 

b. Yorkshire 1758 ; d. Herts 1802. Stipple, 
b. London 1759 ; d. London 1819. Line. 

b. c. 1760 ; fl. 1794. Mezzotint and stipple. 





(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
Park, Thomas. 

Cheeseman, Thomas. 
(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
Watson, Caroline. 

(Daughter of James Wat- 
JuDKiNS, Elizabeth. 

(Said to be pupil of James 

Keating, George. 
(Pupil of William Dickin- 
♦Ramberg, John Henry. 


Knight, Charles. 


(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
Skelton, William. 

(Pupil of Basire and 
Nugent, Thomas. 
DuPONT, Gainsborough. 

Bromley, William, A.E. 
( Pupil of Wooding, a line 
engraver in London.) 

Warren, Charles. 

.- 19th 

Ward, William, A.E. 
(Pupil of J. R. Smith.) 

Ward, James, R.A. 

(Nine years pupil of his 

brother William, and a 

few months of J. R. 


Lanuseer, John, A.E. 

(Pupil of William Byrne.) 

Say, William. 
(Pupil of James Ward.) 

Cooper, Robert. 
Hodges, Charles Howard. 

♦Cardon, Anthony. 

(Pupil of Schiavonetti.) 

b. Londo 1 1760 ; d. 1840. Stipple. Designer. 

b. 1760 ; d. Hampstead 1835. Mezzotint. Author, 
b. 1760 ; d. after 1820. Stipple. Draughtsman. 

b. London 1760; d. Pimlico 1814. Stipple. 

fl. 1772 — 75. Mezzotint. Engraved " Mrs. Abing- 
don " and " Careful Shepherdess," amongst 
others, after Sir J. Reynolds. 

b. Ireland 1762; fl. London 1784 — 97. Mezzotint. 

b. Hanover 1763 ; d. c. 1840. Aquatint, etching, 
stipple. Painter. Came early in life to Eng- 
land, but is said to have died at Hanover. 

b. Bassano 1765 ; d. Brompton 1810. Line, 
stipple. Draughtsman. Came to England in 
1790, and joined Bartolozzi. 

fl. latter part of i8th century. Stipple. 

d. Buckinghamshire 1817. Line. 

b. London 1763 ; d. Pimlico 1848. Line. 

b. Drogheda ; fl. end of 18th century. Stipple. 

b. 1767 ; d. London 1797. Mezzotint. Painter. 

Nephew and pupil of Thomas Gainsborough, 
b. Isle of Wight 1769; d. 1842. Line. Father 

of John Charles, and James Bromley, the 

mezzotint engravers. 

b. London 1767 ; d. Wandsworth 1823. Line. 

Perfected a process of engraving on steel plates 

tried by Raimbach. Awarded gold medal 

Society of Arts, 
b. London 1766 ; d. London 1826. Mezzotint. 

Married sister of George Morland, father of 

William Ward, junior, 
b. London 1769 ; d. 1855. Mezzotint. Animal 


GoDBY, James. 

b. Lincoln 1769 ; d. 1852. Line. Father of the 
painters Charles and Sir Edwin, R.A.'s, and 
of the engraver Thomas. 

b. near Norwich 1768 ; d. London 1834. Mezzo- 
tint. Engraved first successful mezzotint on 

fl. early part of 19th century. Stipple. 

b. England ; d. Amsterdam 1837. Mezzotint 
and painter. Went to Holland c. 1794. 

b. Brussels 1773 ; d. London 1813. Stipple. 
Came to England in 1790. 

fl. beginning 19th century. Stipple. 




Smith, Benjamin. 

(Pupil of Bartolozzi. 
Clint, George, A.R.A. 

Reynolds, Samuel Wm. 
(Pupil of Hodges.) 

Tlrner, Charles, A.E. 

Scott, John. 

(Pupil of Pollard.) 
ScRiVEN, Edward. 

(Pupil of Thew.) 
Raimbach, .\braham, 

(Pupil of J. Hall.) 
Noble, George. 
Engleheart, Francis. 

(Pupil of Collyer.) 
Nesbitt, Charlton. 

(Pupil of Beilby and 
Branston, Robert. 

(Pupil of his father, a 
copperplate engraver.) 
Clennell, Luke. 

(Pupil of Bewick.) 

Cooke, William Bernard. 
(Pupil of Angus, an en- 
graver in line of some 
CooKK, George. 
(Pupil of Basire.) 

Lewis, Frederick Christian. 

D AWE, George, R. A. 

(Son and p pil of Philip 
Davve, Henry. 

(Son and pupil of Philip 
Pye, John. 

(Pupil of James Heath.) 
Wedgwood, John Taylor. 
Meyer, Henry. 

(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
LeKeux, John. ) n,„,i,„^ 
Le Keux. Henry f ^'^°^^^"'' 

(Pupils of Basire.) 
Armstrong, Cosmo. 
Radclyffe, William. 

d. London 1833. Stipple. 

b. London 1770 ; d. Kensington 1854. Mezzo- 
tint ; also portrait and miniature painter. 

b. 1773 ; d. Bayswater 1835. Mezzotint, portrait, 
and water-colour painter. Father of Elizabeth, 
mezzotint engraver and miniature painter, and 
Samuel William, mezzjtint engraver and por- 
trait painter. 

b. Woodstock 1773 ; d. London 1857. Mezzotint 
and stipple. 

b. Newcastle-on-Tyne 1774 ; d. Chelsea 1828. 
Line, animal engraver. 

b. Alcester 1775 ; d. London 1841. Stipple. 

b. London 1776 ; d. Greenwich 1843. , Line. 

fl. beginning of 19th century. Line, 
b. London 1775 ; d. 1849. Line, 

b. near Durham 1775 ; d. Brompton 


b. Lynn 1778 ; d. Brompton 1827. Wood en- 

b. near Morpeth 1781 ; d. Newcastle-on-Tyne 
1840. Wood engraver, water-colour, and minia- 
ture painter. 

b. 1778 ; d. 1855. Line. Brother of George and 
uncle of E. W. Cooke, R.A. 

b. London 1781 ; d. Barnes 1834. Line. Brother 

of Wm. Bernard, and fathtr of E. W. Cooke, 

b. London 1779 ; d. Enfield 1856. Stipple or 

chalk ; water-colour painter. Father of J. F. 

Lewis, K.A., and C G. Lewis the engraver, 
b. London 178 1 ; d. 1829. Mezzotint; painter. 

Brother of Henry. Painted in Russia for the 

Emperor 1819-28. 
b. London 1790 ; d. Windsor 1845. Mezzotint 

and painter. 

b. Birmingham 1782 ; d. London 1874. Line and 

stipple. Landscape engraver, 
b. 1783 ; d. London 1856. Line, 
b. London c. 1783; d. 1847. Mezzotint; and 

stipple. Nephew of J. Hoppner, R.A. 

b. London 1783 ; d. 1846. f ^''^^\ "chitectural, 

b. London 1787 ; d. x868.| 1"^^'^",^''^^'' ^"^ 

fl. early part of 19th century. Line. 

b. Birmingham 1782 ; d. Birmingham 1855. Line, 
landscape engraver ; practised in Birmingham 
all his life. Father of Edward, landscape 

W 2 




Burnet, John, F.R.S. 

Heath, Charles. 

(Son of James Heath.) 
GoLDiNG, Richard. 

(Pupil of J. Parker.) 
WooLNOTH, Thomas. 

Thompson, John. 

(Pupil of Branston.) 
RoMNEY, John. 
Thompson, Charles. 

(Pupil of Bewick and 

Bond, William. 
Chapman, J. 

(Pupil of Bartolozzi.) 
Webb, J. 

FiNDEN, Wm. ) T3„„ti „„ 
FiNDEN, E. F. P-^^^^^"^^- 

(Pupils of J. Mitan, an 
engraver of some note.) 
Walker, William. 

(Pupil of Thomas Wool- 
noth, and Mitchell and 
Stewart, two engravers 
of moderate note.) 
LuFTON, Thomas Goff. 
(Pupil of Clint.) 

LiNNELL, John. 
Cruikshank, George. 
(Son of Isaac, also carica- 
turist and engraver.) 
Worthington, Wm. H. 
GooDALL, Edward. 

Landseer, Thomas, A.E. 
(Son and pupil of John 
Landseer, A.E.) 
Hopwood, James. 
(Son of James ; also an 
engraver, self-taught, 
but helped by Heath.) 
Rolls, Charles. 
Bromley, John Charles. 
(Son of Wm. Bromley, 
Harvey, William. 
(Pupil of Thomas Bewick 
and B. R. Haydon.) 
RoB-Nson, John Henry, 
(Pupil of James Heath.) 

b. Edinburgh 1784 ; d. Stoke Newington 1868. 

Line and mezzotint. Painter and author, 
b. 1785; d. 1848. Line; excelled in small plates. 

b. London 1785 ; d. Lambeth 1865. Line. 

b. 1785 ; d. c. 1854. Stipple and line. Small 
theatrical portraits and architectural views. 

b. London 1785; d. London 1866. Wood engraver. 
Brother of Charles and Charles Thurston. 

b. 1786 ; d. Chester 1863. Line. 

b. London 1791 , d. near Paris 1843. Wood 
engraver; better known in Paris, where he 
went m 1816, and introduced the practice of 
cutting on the end of the wood, then unknown 

fl. beginning of 19th century. Stipple. 

fl. beginning of 19th century. Stipple. 

b. c. 1790; d. 1832. Line. Engraver of animals, 
b. 1788; d. 1852. 
b. 1792 ; d. 1857. 

Stipple and line. Landscape 
and book illustrators. 

b. Midlothian 1791 ; d. London 1867. Stipple 
and mezzotint. Married Elizabeth, daughter 
of S. W. Reynolds. 

b. Clerkenwell 1791 ; d. 1873. Mezzotint. 
Established the use of steel in place of copper 
in mezzo engraving. Received for this gold Isis 
medal from Society of Arts in 1822. 

b. 1792 ; d, c. 1880. Mezzotint ; painter. 

b. London 1792 ; d. London 1878. Etcher and 

b. c. 1795 ; d. 1826. Line. Worked in London. 

b. Leeds 1795 ; d. London 1870. Line. En- 
graved after J. M. W. Turner, through whose 
influence he became an engraver. Was self- 

b. c. 1795 ; d. 1880. Line. Brother of Sir 

b. 1795. Stipple. 

fl. early part of 19th century. Line, 
b. Chelsea 1795; d. 1839. Mezzzotint. His son 
Frederick was also an engraver. 

b. Newcastle-on-Tyne 1796 ; d. Richmond 1866. 

Wood engraver and designer. Cut one of the 

largest English woodcuts. , 
b. Bolton 1796 ; d. Petworth 1871. Line. 




Graves, Robert, A.E. 

(Pupil of John Romney.) 
Watt, James Henry. 

(Pupil of Charles Heath.) 
Bromlev, James. 
(Son of VVilliam Bromley, 
Ward, William, junior. 
(Son of William Ward, 
W1LI.M0RE, James Tibbetts, 
(Seven years pupil of W. 
Kadclyffe, and three 
years of C. Heath.) 
Raddon, W. 


Jackson, John. 

(Pupil of Bewick and 
Gibbon, Benjamin Phelps. 

(Pupil of J[. H. Robinson 
and Scnven). 
Shenton, Henry Chawner. 

(Pupil of Charles Warren.) 
Brandard, Robert. 

(Pupil of E. Goodall.) 

b. London 1798 ; d. Highgate 1873. Line, 
b. London 1799; d. 1867. Line, 
b. 1800 ; d. 1838. Mezzotint. 

b. c. 1800 ; d. 1840. Mezzotint. 

Erdington, Staffordshire, 1800 ; d. London 
1863. Line. Engraved after J. M. W. Turner. 

fl. 1830. Line. 

fl. 1830. Mezzotint. « 

b. Ovingham 1801 ; d. 1848. Wood engraver. 

Published with Chatto "A Treatise on Wood 

Engraving," 1838. 
b. 1802 ; d. London 1851. Line. 

b. Winchester 1803 ; d. London 1866. Line. 

Lewis, Charles George. b. 

Lucas, John. b, 

(Pupil of S. W. Reynolds.) 

Radclvffe, Edward. b, 

(Son and pupil of William 


JouBERT, Jean Ferdinand, b. 

Zobel, George. b. 

Jeens, Charles Henry. b. 

1835. Mezzotint. 

Birmingham 1805 ; d. 1852. Line, land- 
scape engraver. Came to London 1824. En- 
graved after J. M. W. Turner. 

1807 ; d. 1880. Line, etching. 

London 1807 ; d. London 1874. Mezzotint ; 
portrait paii.ter. 

Birmingham 1809 ; d. London 1863. Line. 

1810; d. 1884. Line, 
c. 1815 ; d. London 1881. Mezzotint. 
1817 ; d. 1879. Stipple. Miniature book 
Portsmouth 1819 ; d. Southsea 1877. Mezzo- 

Jackson, John Richardson. 

(Pupil of R. Graves, A.E.) tint and line. 
Cousins, Henry. fl, 1840. Mezzotint. 

(Brother of Saml. Cousins, 
Ward, George Raphael, fl. 1840. Mezzotint. 

(Son of James Ward.) 

There are still living three engravers eminently representative of the old 
schools :— 

Doo, George, R,A., F.R.S, 
Possei.white, J. 
Cousins, Samuel, R.A. 

b. c. 1800. Line. 

b. iBoi. Mezjsotint. The present T. L. Atkin- 
son was a pupil of Cousins. 


Agesilaus, King of Sparta 
Agostino, Veniziano 
Ambling, Gustave 
Amman, Jost. 
Andrea, Zoan 
Andreani, Andrea , 
Andrews, J. . . 
Antonio da Brescia, 
Ardell . ; . • 
Aretino, Pietro . 
D'Argenville . . , 
Atkinson . . 
Aveline . . . 
Audran, Gerard 6, 


1 06 






172, 300, 301 
109, no, 136 
. . . 224 
• . • 324 
. . . 216 
178, 194-202, 

207, 211, 216, 237 

Baillie, Will. 310 

Baldini, Baccio .... 60-65 

Balechou 229-231 

Barbari, Jacopo de' .... 74 

Barlow, F 291, 292 

Bartolozzi 237-239, 305, 313, 314 
Battista del Porto .... 77 

Baudet, fitienne 189 

Beatrizet, Nicolas . . . . 151 

Beauvarlet 226 

Beckett, Isaac .... 297, 298 
Beham, Bartholomew . 93, 94 

Beham, Hans .Sebald . . 93, 94 
Bella, Stefano della . . . 162 

Berghem 139 

Bernard, Augiiste .... 12 
Bernhardinus, Milnet ... 44 


Bernini * . . 168 

Bertinot 278 

Bervic 249, 252-255, 259, 260, 274 

Bewick 315, 326 

Binck, Jacob -94 -/ 3 

Biot 285 

Blackmore 302 

Blake, W 310, 311 

Blanchard 278 

Blootelingh, Abraham . . . 297 

"BM" 85 

Bochelt, Franz von .... 84 

Boldrini, Nicolo 116 

Bolswert . . 132, 133, 149, 177 

Bonasone, da Bologna . . : 106 

Bonnet . 242 

Bonzonnet, Claudine . . . 189 

Borromini 168 

Bosse, Abraham 164, 166, 169, 207 

Both, Jan 139 

Botticelli 60, 62 

Boulanger 237 

Boydell 315 

Boyvin, Rene 151 

Branston, R 326 

Ihauwer, Adrian .... 139 

Breughels 134 

Bromley 320 

Brookshaw 234, 302 

Browne, John 307 

Bruyn, Nicolas van. . . . 131 

Burgkmair, Hans .... 113 

Burke 314 

i Burnet, John 320 

Burt 328 



Calamatta 269 

Callot, Jacques 138, 156-166, 175- 

177, 205 

Canta-Gallina . . . .158, 162 

Cantarmi 162 

Caracci, Agostino . no, 138, 158 
Caracci, Annibale . . . . 168 
Caraglio, Giovanni, da Verona 106 
Cardon, Anthony . . . . 313 

Carmona 226 

Carmontelle 224 

Carpi, Ugo da . . . .111, 112 

Cars, Laurent 213-216 

Casilear ....... 329 

Caylus, Count . . . .224, 240 

Cerceau, du, Adrian . . . 155 

Chapman . 327 

Chauveau 204 

Chedel 217 

Cheesman 314 

Cheney 328 

Chevreuse, Due de . . . . 224 

Chodowiecki 228 

Church 327 

Cipriani 237 

Claessens, Alart 130 

Clennell 326 

Clint, George 320 

Cochin 218, 219, 240 

Coigny, Marquis de , . . . 224 
Cooke, George William . . 320 

Copia 252 

Corneille, Claude .... 153 

Cornelis 134 

Cornelius 94 

Cort, Cornelius 130 

Cortona, da, Pieti-o .... 198 
Coster, Laurence . 14, 16, 22, 28 

Cousin . 150, 151 

Cousins, Henry 324 

Cousins, Samuel. . 266, 267, 322 

Cranach, Lucas 113 

Cunego, Domenichino . . . 228 
Cunio, Cavaliere Albeiico. . 9 

Dagoty, Gautier 243 

Danforth 329 

Danguin 278 

Daulle 226 


David, Emeric .... 10, 31 
David, Louis . . . . . 248, 250 

Dawe, Henry 320 

Dean, John 302 

De Bry 287 

Debucourt 245 

De Kaiser 285 

Delaram, Fran9ois .... 289 
Delaune, fitienne . 151, 153, 154 
De Leu, Thomas . 156, 157, 179 
Demarteau, Gilles . . .239-242 
De Passe, Crispin .... 288 
De Passe, Magdalen . . . 288 
De Passe, Simon .... 288 
Desnoyers, Boucher 249, 259, 260, 
270, 274 
Desplaces, Louis .... 201 

Deuchar, David 310 

Dick 328- 

Dickinson 172, 302 

Dienecker, Jost in 

Dixon, John 302 

Domenichino 168 

Doo 324 

Dorigny 201 

Drevet, Claude 211 

Drevet, Imbert 211 

Drevet, Pierre 211 

Duchange, Gaspard . . . 201 

Duflos 216 

Du Jardin, Karel .... 140 
Dumonstier, Geofroy . . . 151 

Dupuis 216, 226 

Durand 328 

DUrer, Albert 17, 87-95, 97-ioo, 

102, 106, 112, n3, n6, 120, 

122, 128, 176, 177 

Duveneck 327 

Duvet, Jean 151, 152 

Earlom 172, 302, 303 

Edelinck 184-186, 189, 191-196, 
200, 220 

Edwin, David 328 

Elstracke, Reginald ... 289 

Faber, John, senior. 
Faber, John, junior. 

298, 299 
298, 299 




Fairman 329 

Faithorne, Will. . . 170, 289 

Falsing 263 

Finigueri-a 35, 38, 47, 52-56, 62, 

Fiquet . . . 218, 220, 222, 223 

Fisher, Edward 301 

Flipart 217 

Forrest, J. B 328 

Francia, Francesco ... 102 

Francia, Jacopo 74 

Franck 285 

Fran9ois, Alphonse .... 278 
Francois, Jean Charles. . 239-242 

Francois, Jules 276 

Frye, Thomas .... 300, 301 
Fiist 29 

Gaillard 278 

Gantrel 189 

Gamier, Noel 151 

Gaugain, Thomas . . . . 313 

Gaultier, Leonard . . . 156, 179 

Gay wood, R 292 

Geminus, Thomas .... 288 

Gherardo da Modena ... 82 

Ghisi, Diana 106 

Gifford 327 

Giller, William 324 

Gilli 282 

Gimbrede 328 

Giolito da Ferrari . . . . 115 

Giotto 53 

Girard 246 

Glockenton 85 

Golding, Richard .... 320 
Goltzius, Hendrik . . .130,131 

Gomboust, Jacques .... 203 

Gourmont, Jean de . . . . 153 

Goya 139 

Grateloup . 220 

Gravelle, de, President. . . 224 

Graves, Robert 324 

Greche, Domenico delle . . 116 
Green, Valentine. . . .172,302 

Greenwood, John .... 301 

Greuze 216 

Griin, Baldung 93 


GutenburgS, 13-15, 17, 18, 28, 35, 

47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 60, 76-78, 

82, 86, 176 

Haden, Seymour. . 282, 325, 326 

Haid 304 

Hainzelmann, Johann . . . 208 

Hamerton 326 

Hardouin 82 

Harvey, Will 326 

Heath, Charles . . . .320, 329 

Heath, James 309,315 

Henriquel-Dupont . . . 271-277 
Hogarth, William 231-233, 300, 

Hogenberg, Fran9ois . . . 288 
Hogenberg, Remigius . . . 288 
Hollar 170, 171, 177, 287, 290-292 
Hopwood, James .... 320 

Houbraken, J 228 

Houston, Richard .... 301 
Huot 278 

II Vecchio da Parma 


Jackson 324, 326 

Jacobe 304 

Jacobi 285 

Jacquemart 280-283 

Jazet 245, 246 

Jeens, C. H 314 

Jeens, J. H 325 

Jones, John 302 

Kauflfmann, Angelica . . . 237 

Kaulbach 94 

Keller, Franz 262 

Kilian, Bartholomew . . . 209 

Kirkall, Edw 3^^-3^3 

Klaus 285 

Kobell 234 

Laborde, L^on . . . 12, 36-38 

Landseer, John 320 

Larmessin, Nicolas de . . . 216 

Lasne, Michel 180 

Lastman 243 

Laugier 276 



Law, David 326 

Lawrie, Robert 302 

Le Bas 216, 234 

Leblond, J. Christophe 242, 243, 

3ii> 312 
Lebrun 184, 187, 189, 194, 196, 

198, 199 
Leclerc, Sebastien . . .184, 204 

Legat, F 309 

Le Josephin 158 

Lepautre 204 

Lepicie 216, 230 

Leprince, J. B 244 

Le Roy, Philip 134 

Levasseur . . . . . . . 217 

Lewis 324 

Leyden, Lucas van 118-131, 134, 


Linton 326 

Longhi 256 

Lorraine, Claude 138, 160, 162, 
165, 167, 177 

Louis, Aristide 276 

Loutherbourg 231 

Lucas, David 322-324 

Lucas, John . . . . . . 322 

Ludy 262 

Lupton, Thomas 320 

Lutma, Jan 238 

Liitzelburger 11 3-1 15 

Luynes, Duchess of . . . . 224 

" Maitre a I'Ecrevisse " . . 130 
*' Maitre a I'Etoile " . . . 130 

Major, Thomas 304 

Mantegna, Andrea 68-74, 85, 124, 
176, 177 

Mantovani 106 

Marc Antonio, Raimondi 66, 73, 91, 

92, 100-113, 120, 122, 124, 

133. 176-178 

Marc de Bye 140 

Marco da Ravenna 

... 106 

Marcolini da Forli 

... 115 

Marshall . . . 

• • • 329 

Massaloff . . . 

... 282 


... 250 

Masse .... 

... 229 

Masson .... 

. 189, 194, 211 

''Master of the Bird" . . . 77 
" Master of the Caduceus" . 74 
** Master of Colmar" ... 76 
" Master of Nuremberg " . . 94 
" Master of the Streamers " . 118 
"Master of 1466 "49, 51, 53. 76- 
78, 82, 86 
"Masters, The Little" 93, 162, 
169, 177 
Mechenen, Israel van ... 84 

Mellan, Claude 180 

Memling . 22 

Mendel 263 

Mercuri 269 

Merian, Matthew .... 170 

Merz 262 

Meyer, Henry 320 

Mignard 194, 196 

Mocetto 74, 75 

Moles, Pascal 226 

Montenay, Georgette de . . 156 

Moran 327 

Morel 250 

Morghen . 106, 255-258, 260, 269 
Morin, Jean 6, 179, 181, 21 r, 237 

Morris, Thomas 309 

Moser 237 

Miiller, Christian Fred. . 258-261 

Miiller, Jan 130, 131 

Miiller, John Godard . .258, 259 
Musi, Agostino 151 

Nanteuil, Robert 180-184, 186, 

189-192, 194, 202, 209, 211, 


Nesbitt ........ 326 

Niccolo della Casa .... 152 

Niccolo, of Pisa 53 

Nicoletto da Modena . . 74, 82 

Ogborn, John 314 

Ostade, Adrian van . . . . 139 
Ottley 328 

Parrish, Stephen 327 

Peak, Charles Wilson ... 328 

Pencz, Georg 93 

Pennell . . ' 327 

Perkins 329 



Pesne, Jean . 187-189, 193, 194 

Pether, William 302 

Petitot 220,222 

Pichler 304 

Pitau, Nicolas 191 

Poilly, Francois de 189, 191, 194, 
204, 207, 209 
PoUajuolo, Antonio . . 55, 62, 85 
Pompadour, Mme. de . . 224, 225 
Pontius, Paul 132, 133, 149, 177 

Porporati 226, 227 

Possel white 324 

Potter, Paul 138, 139 

Poussin 160 

Preisler, Martin 226 

Prestel, Katherine .... 237 
Prevost 246 

Raimbach, Abraham . .266, 267 
Raimondi (see Marc Antonio). 

Raphael 101-108 

Reboul, Mme 224 

Redlich 282 

Regent, The Prince, of France 223 

Regnesson 182 

Rcgnier, Mathurin .... 160 
Rembrandt 104, 128, 140-148, 177 
Reynolds, Sir J. . . 172, 231, 233 
Reynolds, Samuel 266, 267, 317- 


Ribera 139, 175 

Richomme 276 

Rigaud 211, 214 

Ritchie 328 

Robert 284 

Robetta 67 

Robinson 324 

Roger, IJarthelemy .... 252 

Rogers, William 288 

Romano, Giulio . . 102, 108-110 

Rosa, Salvator 159 

Roullet 189, 194 

Rousseaux 276 

Rubens . . . 1 31-133. 176, 178 
Rupert, Prince 171-173, 292, 296 

Ruysdael, J 139 

Ryder, Thomas 314 

Ryland 226, 228, 238, 239, 270, 
309, 310 

St. Aubin, Augustin . . 218-221 
St. Non, Abbe de . . . . 240 

Saint-Ygny 164 

Sanson, Adrian 203 

Sanson, Guillaume .... 203 

Sartain, John 328 

Savart 220 

Say, William 320 

Schaffer 262 

Schaiiflein, Hans. . . . 93, 113 

Schmidt 226 

Schon, Bartholomew ... 84 

Schongauer, Martin 76, 78-86, 91, 

117^ 176, 177 

Scott, John 320 

Scultori, Diana (see Ghisi). 

Seghers 243 

Selma, Fernando .... 228 
Sharp, William 305, 308, 309, 315 

Sherborne, W. H 325 

Sherwin, John Keyse . . 297, 309 
Shervvin, William . . . 296, 297 
Silvestre, Israel . . 138, 164, 177 

Simon, Jean 298 

Simoneau, Charles .... 229 

Slocombe 326 

Smillies 328 

Smith, Anker 309, 316 

Smith, Beckett .... 297, 298 

Smith, John 297, 298 

Smith, J. R 172, 302 

Snyders, Franz 134 

Sonnenleiter 285 

Soutman 132, 133 

Spencer, Asa 329 

Spierre, Fran(,'ois .... 204 

Spilsbury, John 302 

Star, Dirck (see Van Staren). 

Steinfensand 262 

Steinla 263 

Stella, Claudine (see Bonzonnet). 
Strange, Robert 226, 228, 234, 270, 

Sullivan, Luke . . . .304, 305 
Suyderhoef, Jonas . . .136, 149 

Tardieu, Alexandre 249, 251, 259, 

Tardieu, Nicolas Henri .201, 226 



Taylor .... 
Thaeter .... 
Thompson, Charles 
Thompson, John 
Tiebout, C. . . 
Tinney, John . . 
Titian .... 
Tomkins, P. W. 
Toschi .... 
Tory, Geofroy 
Trento, Antonio da 
Turner, Charles . 

linger .... 







Vaillant, Wallerant . . . 1 72, 296 
Van Dalen, Cornelius . .136, 177 

Van Dyck 133, 134 

Van Eyck 18, 22, 28 

Van Schuppen . .194, 208, 209 

Van Staren, Dirck . 
Velde, Adrian van de 
Veldenaer, John . . 
Vermeulen, Cornelius 
Vicentino, Nicolo . 
Vissher, Cornelius 135-137, 

Vivares 229-231 

Volpato 255 

Von Siegen, Ludwig 17 


[32, 133, 





72, 292, 

[77, 287 


Vostre, Simon 82 

Wagner, Joseph . . . . . 226 
Walker, Anthony . . . 302, 307 

Walker, James 302 

Walker, William 302, 308, 313, 
321, 322 

Ward, William 316 

Watelet 224 

Watson, Caroline . . . . 313 
Watson, James . . . .172,302 
Watson, Thomas. . . .172,302 

Watt, J. H 324 

Watteau 214 

Weber 285 

Wenceslas, of Olmiitz ... 84 

Weirotter 228 

Whistler 326, 327 

White, G 298 

Wierix 131 

Wille, John George . . . 226, 259 

Woeiriot, Pierre 153 

Wolgemut, Michael . 87-89, 113 
Woollett 229, 231, 234, 236, 270, 
305, 307, 308 
Woolnoth, Thomas . . .320,321 
Worlidge, Thomas .... 310 
Wren, Sir Ch 296 

Young, John 302 

Zell, Ulric 14-16 

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Worsted, by W. S. Bright McLaren, 4s. 6d.— Design in Textile 
Fabrics, by T. R. Ashenhurst, 4s. 6d. — Practical Mechanics, by Prof. 
Perry, M.E., 3s. 6d.— Cutting Tools Worked by Hand and Machine, 
by Prof. Smith, 38. 6d.— Practical Electricity, by Prof. W. E. Ayrton, 5s. 
Other Volumes in preparation. A Prospectus sent post fret on 

CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited, Ludgate Hill, London. 

Selections from Casscll # Company s Publications. 

^ g00fea te f mnt0 ^toifltf 

Under Bayard's Banner. By Henry Frith. Illustrated. 5s. 

The King's Command. A Story for Girls. By Maggib Symington. 

Illustrated- 5s. 
The Romance of Invention. By James Burnley. Illustrated. 58. 
The Tales of the Sixty Mandarins. By P. V. Ramaswami Raju. 

With an Introduction by Prof. Henry Morley. Illustrated. 5s. 
A World of Girls : The Story of a School. By L. T. Meadb. Illus- 
trated. 3s, 6d. 
Lost among White Africans : A Boy's Adventures on the Upper 

Congo. By David Ker. Illustrated. 3s. 6d. 
Perils Afloat and Brigands Ashore. By Alfred Elwes. Illustrated. 

33. 6d. 
Freedom's Sword : A Story of the Days of Wallace and Bruce. 

By Annie S. Swan. Illustrated. 3s. 6d. 
Strong to Suffer: A Story of the Jews. By E. Wynne. Illustrated. 

2s. 6d. 
The Merry-go- Round. Original Poems for Children. Illustrated 

throughout. 5s. 
Heroes of the Indian Empire ; or, Stories of Valour and Victory, 

By Ernest Foster. Illustrated, as. 6d. 
In Letters of Flame : A Story of the Waldenses. By C. L. 

MatAaux. Illustrated, as. 6d. 
Through Trial to Triumph. By Madeline B. Hunt. Illustrated, as. 6d. 

Sunday School Reward Books. By Popular Authors. With Four 
Original Illustrations in each. Cloth gilt, is. 6d. each. 
Bhoda'B Beward; or, "If 

WieheB were HorseB.'* 
Jack IlarBton's Anchor. 

BagB and BainbowB: a Story of 

TTncle "William's Charge; or, Tho 

Broken Trust. 
Pretty Pink's Purpose ; or, Tho 
Little Street Merchants. 

Prank's Life-Battle; or. The 
Three Priends. 

••Golden Mottoes" Series, The. Each Book containing 208 pages, with 
Four full-page Original Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, as. each. 

•* Nil DeBperandum." By the 
Key. F. Langbndge. 

"Bear and Forbear." By Sarah 

" Foremost if I Can." By Helen 


' itonour is my Guide.** By Jeaiiie 

Hering (Mrs. Adaiiis-Acton). 
' Aim at the Sure End." By Einilie 

'He Conquers who Endures." By 

the Author of "May Cunninchain's 

Trial." &c 

The New Children's Album. Fcap. 4(0, 320 pages. Illustrated 

throughout. 3s. 6d. 
The History Scrap Book. With nearly 1,000 Engravings. 5s ; cloth, 7s.6d. 
"Little Folks" Half -Yearly Volume. With 200 Illustrations 

and several Pictures in Colour. 3s*. 6d. ; or cloth gilt, 5s. 
Bo- Peep. A Book for the Little Ones. With Original Stories and Verses, 

Illustrated throughout. Boards, as. 6d. ; cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. 
The World's Lumber Room. By Selina Gave. Illustrated. 3s. 6cl- 

The *• Proverbs " Series. Original Stories by Popular Authors, foundctl 

on and illustrating well-known Proverbs. With Four Illustrations 

in each Book, printed on a tint. is. 6d. each. 

Fritters. By Sarah Pitt. Tim Thomson's TrlaL By George 

Trlxy. By Mac[K:>e Syinineton. Wcatlirrly. 

The Two liar dcaatles. By Made- Ursulas Stiunblinc- Block. ByJuUa 

line llonavla Hunt. Goddard. 

Major Monk's Motto By tlis Batfi'B Life-Work. By tiM Rot. 

Rer. F. Lansbridfe. ToMph Johnaoa. 

Selections from Cassell ^ Company's Puhlicahom. 

The "Cross and Crown" Series. Consisting of Stories founded on 
incidente which occurred during Religious Persecutions of Past 
Days. With Illustrations in each Book, printed on a tint 2S. 6d. 

By Fire and Sword : A Story of 

the Hueruenots. By Thomas 

Adam Hepburn's Vow : A Tale 

of Kirk and Covenant. By 

Annie S. Swan. 

No. XIII.; or. The Story of the 
Lost Vestal. A Tale of Early 
Christian Days. By Emma Marshall 

The 'World's Workers. A Series of New and Original Volumes. 
With Portraits printed on a tint as Frontispiece, is. each. 

General Qordoa. By the Rev. 
S. A. Swsiae. 

Charles Diokens. By his Eldest 

Sir Titus Salt and George 
Moore. By J. Burnley. 

Florence Nightingrale, Cather- 
ine Marsh, Prances Ridley 
HavergaL Mrs. Banyard 
(•' L.N.R?'). By Lizzie Aldridge. 

Dr. Guthrie, Father Mathew, 
Ellhu Burritt, Gheorge Live- 
sey. By the Rev. J. W. Kirton. 

David. livlngstone. By Robert 

Sir Henry Havelock and Colin 

Campbell, Lord Clyde. By E. C. 

Abraham Tilncoln. By Ernest Foster. 
George Mviller and Andrew Beed. 

By E. R. Pitman. 
Bichard Cobden. By R. Cowing. 
Benjamin Franklin. By E. M. 

Handel. By Eliza Clarke. 
Turner, the Artist. By the Rev. S. A. 

George and Bobert Stephenson. 

By C. L. Mat^aux. 

The "Chimes" Series. Each containing 64 pages, with Illustrations 
on every page, and bound in Japanese morocco, is. 
Bible Chimes. I Holy Chimes. 

Daily Chimes. | Old World Chimes. 

Books for Boys. Cloth gilt, 5s. each. 
"Follow My Leader;" or. the 
Boys of Templeton. By .Talbot 
Baines Reed. 

For Fortune and Glory : a Story 
of the Soudan War. By Len-is 

The Champion of Odin : or. Viking 
Life in the Days of Old. By J . 

Fred. Hodgetts. 
Bound by a Spell : or, the Hunted 
Witch of the Forest. By the 
Hon. Mrs. Greene. 

Price 3S. 6d. each. 
On Board the "Esmeralda:" or, I In Quest of Gold: or. Under the 
Martin Leigh's Log. By John Whanga Falls. By Alfred bt. 

C. Hutcheson. | Johnston. 

For Queen and King : or, the Loyal 'Prentice. By Henry Frith. 

The " Boy Pioneer" Series. By Edward S. Ellis. With Four Full- 
page Illustrations in each Book. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. each. 
Ned in the Woods. A Tale of I Ned on the River. A Tale of Indian 
Early Days in the West. | River Warfare. 

Ned in the Blook House. A Story of Pioneer Life in Kentucky. 

The "Log Cabin" Series. By Edward S. Ellis. With Four Full- 
page Illustrations in each. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. each. 
The Lost TralL | Camp- Fire and Wigwam. | Footprints in the Forest. 

Sixpenny Story Books. All Illustrated, and containing Interesting 
Stories by well-known Writers. 

Little Content. 

The Smuggler's Cave. 

Little Lizzie. 

LitUe Bird. 

The Boot on the Wrong Foot. 

Luke Barnicott. 

Little Pickles. 

The Boat Club. By Oliver Optic. 

Helpful Nellie: and other 

The Elehester College Boys. 
My First Cruise. 
Lottie's White Frock. 
Only Just Once. 
The Little Peacemaker. 
The Delft Jug. By Silverpen. 

The " Baby's Album " Series. Four Books, each conuining about 
50 Illustrations. Price 6d. each ; or cloth gilt, is. each. 
Baby's Albut. I Fairy's Album. 

Dolly'B Album. | Pussy's Album. 

Selections from Cassell ^ Company s Publications. 

Illustrated Books for the Little Ones. 

All lUustnted. is. each. 

Indoors and Out. 

Some Farm Friends. 

Those Golden Sands. 

Little Mothers & their Children. 

Containing interesting Stories. 

Our Pretty Pets. 
Our Schoolday Hours. 
Creatures Tame. 
Creatures WUd. 

Shilling^ Story Books. Ail Illnstiated, and containing Interesting Stories 

Thoma and Tan^rles. 

The Cuokootn-the Kobin's Kest. 

John's Mistake. 

Pearl's Fairy Flower. 

The History of Five liittle 

Diamonds in the Sand. 
Surly Bob. 
The Giant's Cradle. 

Shag and Doll. 

Aunt IiTioia's liOcket. 

The Maeio Mirror. 

The Cost of Beven^e. 

Clever Frank. 

Am oner t^e S^dskina. 

The Ferryman of BrilL 

Harry MaxwelL 

A Banished Monarch. 

Little Folks " Painting Books. With Text, and Outline Illustrations 
for Water-Colour Painting, is. each. 

Pioturee to Paint. 

Vruits and Blossoms for 
" Little Folks " to Paint. 

Tlie "Little Folks'* Proverb 
Painting Book. 

The "Little Folks" niuminat- 
inff Book. 

' Little Folks " Painting Book, 
"lilttle Folks" Nature Painting 

Another "Little Folks" Painting 


Eighteenpenny Story Books. All Illustrated throughout. 

Three Wee Ulster Lassies. 

Little Queen Mab. 

Up the Ladder. 

Dick's Hero; and other Stories. 

The Chip Boy. 

Baegleb, Baggies, and the 

Boses from Thorns. 
Faith's Father. 

By Land and Sea. 

The Young Berringtona. 

Jefif and Leff. 

Tom Morris's Error. 

Worth more than Gold. 

" Through Flood— Through Fire ; ' 

and other Stories. 
The Girl with, the Golden Looks. 
Stories of the Olden Time. 

The "Cosy Corner" Series. Story Books for Children. Each con- 
taining nearly One Hundred Pictures, is. 6d. each. 

Little Talks with Little People. 
Bright Rays for Dull Days. 
Chats for Small Chatterers. 

See-Saw Stories. 

Little Chimes for All Times. 

W^ee Willie Winkie. 

Pet'H Posy of Pictures and 

Dot's Story Book. 
Story Flowers for Bainy Hours. 

Pictures for Happy Hours. 
Ups and Downs of a Donkey's 

The "World in Pictures." Illustrated throughout. 2s. 6d. each. 

A Bamble Bound France. 

All the Bussias. 

Chats about Germany. 

The Land of the Pyramids 

Peeps into China. 

The Eastern Wonderland (Japan). 
Glimpses of South America. 
Bound Africa. 

The Land of Temples (India). 
The Isles of the Pacific. 

Two-Shilling Story Books. 

Stories of the Tower. 
Mr. Buiice's Nieces. 
May Cunningham's Trial. 
The Top of tne Ladder : How 

to Beaob It. 
Little Flotoam. 
Madn'WUl bar Frianda. 
TheCnUdren of the Court. 
A Moonbeam Tangla. 
MmiC Maijory. 

All Illustrated. 

The Four (Tata of the Tippertons. 

Marion's Two Homes. 

Little Folks' Sunday Book. 

Two Fourpenny Bits. 

Poor Nolly. 

Tom Heriot. 

Through Peril to Fortune. 

Aunt Tabitha'o Watb. 

Selections from Cassell J: Company's Publications. 

Half-Crown Story Books. 

Little Hineres. 
Margaret's Enemy. 
Pen's Perplexities. 
Notable SnipwreclfS. 
Golden Days. 

Wonders of Common Things. 
Little Empress Joan. 
Truth, will Out. 

At the South Pole. Cheap Edition. 

Soldier and Patriot (Qeorge Wash- 
ington), [hood. 

Picture of School Life and Boy- 

The Young Man in the Battle of 
Life. By the Rev. Dr. Landels. 

The True Glory of Woman. By the 
Rev. Dr. Landels, 

Library of Wonders. Illustrated Gift-books for Boys. as. 6d. each. 

Wonderful Adventures. 
Wonders of Animal Instinct. 
Wonders of Architecture. 
Wonders of Acoustics. 

Gift-Books for Children. 

The Story of Kobin Hood. 
Playins Trades. 

Three and Sixpenny Library 
trated and bound in cloth gilt. 

Jane Austen and her Works. 

Mission Life in Greece and 

The Dingy House at Kensing- 

The Bomanoe of Trade. 

The Three Homes. 

My Guardian. 

School Girls. 

W^onders of W^ater. 
Wonderful Escapes. 
Bodily Strength and Skill. 
Wonderful Balloon Ascents. 

With Coloured Illustrations, as. 6d. each. 


Keynard the Pox. 
The Pilgrim's Progress. 

of Standard Tales, &c. All Illus- 
Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. each. 

Deepdale Vicarage. 

In Duty Bound. 

The Half Sisters. 

Peggy Oglivie's Inheritance. 

The Family HonoO. 

Esther West. 

Working to Win. 

Krilof and his Fables. By W. R. S. 

Ralston, M.A. 
Fairy Tales. By Prof. Morley. 

The Home Chat Series. All Illustrated throughout. 
Boards, 3s. 6d. each. Cloth, gilt edges, 5s. each. 

Half-Hours with Early Ex 

Stories about Animals. 
Stories about Birds. 
Paws and Claws. 

Fcap. 4to. 

Home Chat. 

Sunday Chats with Our Young 

Peeps Abroad for Folks at Homo. 
Around and About Old England. 

Books for the Little Ones. 

The Little Doings of some 
Little Folks. By Chatty Cheer- 
ful. Illustrated. 5s. 
. The Sunday Scrap Book. With 
One Thousand Scripture Pictures. 
Hoards, 58. ; cloth, 78. 6d. 
Daisy Dimple's Scrap Book. 
Containing about 1,000 Pictures. 
Boards, 6s.; doth gilt, 7s. 6d. 

Books for Boys. 

Kidnapped. By R. L. Stevenson. 6b. 
King Solomon's Mines. By H. 

Rider Haggard. 5s. 
The Phantom City. By W. Wes- 

TALL. 6b. 

Famous Sailors of Former 
Times. By Clements Markhaiu. 
Illustrated. 2s. 6d. 

Treasure Island. By R. L. Ste- 
venson. Illustrated. 6s. 

Little Folks' Picture Album. With 

i68 Large Pictures. 63. 
Little Folks' Picture Gallery. With 

150 Illustrations. 58. 
The Old Fairy Tales. With Original 

Illustrations. Boards, Is.; cloth. 

Is. 6d. 
My Diary. With la Coloured Pbtes 

and 366 Woodcuts. Is. 

Modem Explorers. By Thomas 

Frost. Illustrated. 6s. 
Cruise in Chinese Waters. By 

Capt. Lindley. Illustrated. 58. 
Wild Adventures in Wild Places. 

By Dr. Gordon Stables, M.D., K.N. 

Illustrated. 6s. 
Jungle, Peak, and Plain. By Dr. 

Gordon Stables, R.N. Illustrated. 

CASSELL i COMPANY, Limited, London; Paris, New York 
and Milboumt. 



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